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THE TIME has come when the secret work of the twelve brothers of the Order of the Rose Cross is to be supplemented with a more direct effort to promulgate a definite, logical, and sequential teaching concerning the origin, evolution, and future development of the world and of man. The first principles of this teaching are revealed at a glance to the discerning eye through the emblem of the Rose Cross. But before Mr. and Mrs. Max Heindel were authorized to promulgate in public the rudiments of the Western Wisdom Teachings the Order was, and in certain parts of the world still is, represented by a single white rose in the center of the cross, symbolizing, as explained in the Rosicrucian Cosmo-Conception, the indwelling human spirit, radiating from itself the four vehicles, the dense, vital, and desire bodies, plus the mind.
The name Rosicrucian, however, as well as its emblem, are comparatively modern variations of the same occult teaching which has existed for the initiate brother and sister from time immemorial.
The most primitive antecessor of our modern Rosicrucian Emblem is the mysterious Svastika, the Crux Gammata of the ancient Gammadion Order. This form of the cross is now believed to be older even than the Crux Ansata, the Anch of the Egyptians, our anchor of hope.
The name Svastika is from a Sanskrit word signifying happiness, pleasure, good luck. It is composed of Su, (the equivalent of Greek eu), "good," and asti (Greek esti) "being," "good being," with the suffix ka, (Greek ka. Latin co) forming the substantive. In Great Britain this sign was given the name of "Fylfot," meaning four-footed. But the sign itself existed long before it was named, even before the origin of the Sanskrit language and the Buddhist religion.
To save space we will not burden the reader with an account of the many places in the four corners of the globe where this sign has been discovered by archaeologists, and simply say that it is found in many places, at many times, and under many conditions.
To the ancient Brahmins and Buddhists the Svastika represented the apparatus for kindling fire, and by derivation it became the symbol of living flame, of sacred fire, and thence of the sun.
Now the sun was created on the fourth day. According to the occult analysis of Genesis, the Hyperborean Epoch is there described, and is a recapitulation of the Sun Period. The Lords of Form appeared with the angels and clothed man's dense form with a vital body. Then mankind was plantlike, the skeleton still soft as cartilage, and man's consciousness was like that of dreamless sleep. At the end of the Hyperborean Epoch the earth was thrown off from the sun, and the earth was later followed by Venus and Mercury.
But how could there be light upon the earth when the sun was not made until the fourth day? If the student will consult the original Hebrew, he will find that the word Ur translated "luminary" in the 16th verse, is the same Ur which is translated "light" in the 3rd verse. Therefore the scientist has a perfect right to translate the first Ur in the third verse as "sun," and to reserve the "light" for the fourth day. Furthermore, this is the same Ur which was the birth place of Abraham, and the same Ur which was that mysterious part of the high priest's breast plate called Urim and Thummhn. There the word has the masculine plural ending, proving to us that this Ur was not an ordinary light or an ordinary stone, but the Philosopher's Stone in human form, an Adept, who, together with the other heads of the Hebrew tribes represented by the assembly of twelve stones, answered the questions asked of the high priest. This is also shown by the numerical value of the word, which is 207 or 9, the same as that of Adam, Man. That the Ur created by the Elohim on the first day was not an ordinary light is also taught by John, 1:1-18. And so the Bible teaching is perfectly scientific when it reserves the greater and the lesser lights for the fourth day.
And yet, the eternal facts of involution, evolution, and epigenesis cannot be placed in the past or in the future with concepts of space and time; they must be spiritually discerned if they are to be understood. We read, "In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth," and "In the beginning was the Word," and thence we have an idea that millions of years ago God wound up the universe like a clock which has been running ever since. If we should read, "In the end God will create the heavens and the earth," it would mean, that the Word is here and now, and that God is creating the heavens and the earth. There never was and never will be a time when the Spirit was or is not; end and beginning are dreams.
The first dawn of our present waking consciousness appeared in the Lemurian Epoch, when in the intimate contact of the sex relation the spirit pierced the veil of flesh and the man knew his wife. Previous to that he knew nothing of consciousness on the physical plane for he had no memory and was unconscious of birth, pain and death. His wife was the first object he knew as different from himself and the first crude attempt in expressing this knowledge, the first attempt in writing, was made with two lines crossed, representing the sex relation as knowledge or memory, and making the first distinction between the self and the not-self, the knower and the thing known. This knowledge was made possible through the separation of the sexes in the Lemurian Epoch of the Earth Period, which is described by the different creation of Adam from that of Eve in the Bible. In the first chapter of Genesis God created man in His own image; male and female created he them. In the second chapter Adam was formed from the dust of the ground into Nephesh Chayah, or Psyche, which is translated "living soul," while the woman was made later from the "rib" of man. In the first chapter God gave man dominion over every living thing that moveth upon the earth. In the second chapter God commandeth the man.
The making of the woman Isha was brought about through the inability of the man Adam to find a name for himself, because he was as yet both male and female, and had no knowledge of the separation of the sexes. He was at one with all things; he had dominion over them or gave names to them. "And Adam gave names to everything, but for Adam there was not found a help (name) meet for him." Then Jehovah God caused one side or sex of Adam to fall into a deep sleep and to remain latent, while the other sex was fully developed. "And the side which Jehovah God had made latent in the man (Adam)," builded he into a woman (Isha) and brought her unto the man (Adam)." Then the name was found, but it was an entirely different name from that of Adam. "And the man (Adam) said, 'this is now bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh, she shall be called woman (Isha) because she was taken out of man (Ish).'" He did not call her Adamah but Isha (from iashan, to sleep.)
Let us pause here for a moment and meditate on the divine-human origin of language. God gave man power and dominion over every living thing. (In the Hebrew in verse 28 the word translated dominion is "urdu," written with the connective letter Vav, giving it the numerical value of 216 or 9.) God gave man also reason and language. But He did not give him language in the form of a dictionary, ready made to his use. He did not teach him words from without as we teach a parrot. He did not turnish him with names, but gave him the power of naming, and then evoked that power which He gave. It was not God who imposed the first names on the creatures. He brought them all to Adam "to see what he would call them— and whatsover Adam called every living creature (at the direct suggestion of His Creator,) that was the name thereof." Gen. 2:19
Nevertheless, there are some very important things mentioned in the first chapter of Genesis which God RE-named Himself. What are these? As we cannot ask this question in Hebrew (MI ELH!), where it contains its own answer, (ELOHIM), it shall be done in English. They are just five: darkness, light, the firmament, the dry land, and the waters—or the four elements, fire, air, earth, and water, with that fifth element added, "which in the Jupiter Period will unite with the speech, so that words will invariably carry with them understanding." It was Adam who named these elements, but God renamed them and called them night, day, heaven, earth, and sea. In the Hebrew the four elements are called, lam, Nour, Ruach, and Iabesha, the initial letters of which, I. N. R. I., appear elsewhere on the Svastika.
In the second chapter Adam called his flesh and bone woman (isha, num. 306) because she was taken out of man (ish.) In the third chapter, after the serpent had brought the "curse" upon them, he called the name of his wife Eve (Chavah), because she was the mother of all living men.—In the last verse of the second chapter the Hebrew word arum applied to the man and his wife is translated naked; in the first verse of the third chapter, this same word arum, when applied to the serpent, is translated subtle or cunning. So the student is free to translate this word in both cases as the Teacher translated it, when He said, "Be ye wise as serpents, and harmless as doves." In reading the sacred Scriptures we must never forget that they were originally written in another language, and that there is only one language in heaven while there are many on earth.
In regard to the origin of language it is said in the Cosmo-Conception: "With memory came to the Atlanteans the rudiments of a language. They evolved words and no longer made use of mere sounds as did the Lemurians. The Rmoahals began to give names to things. They were yet a spiritual race, and their soul-powers being like the forces of nature, they not only named the objects around them, but in their words was power over the things they named. Like the last of the Lemurians, their feelings as spirits inspired them, and no harm was ever done to one another. To them the language was holy as the highest direct expression of the Spirit. Its power was never abused or degraded by gossip or small talk. By the use of definite language the soul in this race first became able to contact the soul of things in the outside world."
WHEN ADAM "knew" Eve, his wife, they became aware that every birth is followed by death and every death is followed by a new birth. This they expressed by lines in the form of a cross representing two human figures, the one standing upright and erect, the other lying dead on the ground. As their memory developed during the Atlantean Epoch, they also learned to count and to use numbers. All man counted at first was his wife, his child and himself, each of them containing the other two, making 3 x 3 or 9 in all. Beyond this number he could not go, for no matter how many children were born to him, every time he added one at a new birth, he had to subtract one at death, thus keeping the number of humanity eternally the same, unchanged either by over population or by race suicide.
According to Professor Wilhelm Branca of Stuttgart, the human race is 30,000 or more years old, judging from certain remains found. The number of men living upon the earth today is about 1,500 millions. At the present rate of increase in population this number would grow in 200 years to 6000 millions, and this would be about the highest number that our Mother Earth could nourish without artificial means. Taking this same rate of the present increase of population and counting backward, we would come to the first pair in a few thousand years, while our records prove that the human race is much older. Therefore it must have increased much more slowly in the past than it does today. However, the sum total of life is the same today as it ever was and ever will be. And that is the answer to the question, why there are not more than 12,000 saved out of each tribe, and also why there are not more than 12 Brothers in the Order of the Rose Cross. In this Order, when one passes on, another takes his place, and so the number is kept unchanged from the 12 sons of Israel to the 12 apostles, sitting on 12 thrones as mentioned in the Revelation.
At the beginning of the Atlantean Period man was very different from anything existing on earth at the present time. The spirit was not quite an indwelling spirit; it was partially outside, therefore could not control its vehicles with as great facility as though it dwelt entirely inside. His powers of perception and vision were much keener in the inner worlds than in the dense physical world, obscured by its atmosphere of thick, heavy fog. He could see his inner or higher vehicles and their relation to the planets and to the higher worlds with the same clearness and distinctness with which we see objects iy the physical world.
The most wonderful and the most powerful of all the occult formulas, which is represented in a diagram facing the title page of the CosmoConception and which was taught in public by Christ Jesus, was not unknown to the early Atlanteans who still retained their inner vision, and saw man as a threefold body, a threefold soul, and a threefold spirit. But here again they found that the number 9 is all inclusive and that they could not go beyond this number. And when the mind was given to them by the Lords of Mind and their consciousness was enlarged, they still divided the universe into 9 regions, beyond which there was merely repetition upon the spiral path of progress.
Counting from (1) the Chemical Region, upward, they found (2) the Etheric Region (3) the Region of Desire, (4) the Region of Concrete Thought, (5) the Region of Abstract Thought, (6) the World of Life Spirit, (7) the World of Divine Spirit, (8) the World of Virgin Spirits, (9) the World of God. There they had to stop, for the World of God contains all the lesser worlds, just as the number nine contains all the lesser numbers and is also their sum when added, which is 36, and 3 plus 6 equal 9. Again, when they counted the planets in the heavens above, they found that they were 9: Saturn, Sun, Moon, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus, Uranus and Neptune. And as there are an infinite number of planets and worlds contained in the World of God, so there is an infinite series of numbers contained in the number 9.
The connection of all this with the Svastika may not be apparent at first, but if we multiply the four sides or the four feet of this figure with the number of the planets or of the Worlds, we will find that it is itself composed of the number 9, the number of humanity. The different Worlds are represented by the 8 lines of the Svastika as proceeding from one central point, the World of God. They also represent the vehicles belonging to these Worlds. The four dead horizontal lines represent the dense, vital, and desire bodies, plus the lower mind, while the four living perpendiculars represent the Higher Mind, the Human Spirit, the Life Spirit, and the Divine Spirit, all connected and controlled by the Ego in the center.
In the last third of the Atlantean Period man became fully awake in the physical world, but at the same time that the dense, foggy atmosphere cleared and that the full sight and perception in the physical world were gained, the capability of perceiving the inner worlds was gradually lost to most of the people. This inner sight cannot be fully regained until we reach the "New Galilee" through the sixteen races.
The original Semites, who were the fifth and most important of the seven Atlantean races, could see objects clearly which had sharp, well defined contours. They wrote their words in pictures, like the Egyptians, and from these pictures they gradually developed an alphabet which was at first a combination of a picture and a letter. The Hebrew alphabet consisting of 22 letters is made up of pictures, and therefore the letters are called according to these pictures, ox, house, camel, door, etc. These letters are also used as numbers.
The first Hebrew letter, Aleph, looks similar to the right armed Svastika. The word Aleph is translated as meaning ox, showing that it denotes strength and power. In Egypt this letter was pictured as an eagle (love), a feather (wisdom), and an arm (activity). The Aleph combines these three (number 111, one in three and three in one). It is the first letter of the word Elohim, God, and denotes love, wisdom and power; or wisdom, strength, and beauty; or Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.
Since the Hebrew letters are also used as numbers, Aleph is one. Now the Hebrew word for one is, Echod, and the numeral value of this word is 13, and 13 is 1 plus 3 or 4. When we read, "Hear, 0 Israel, the Lord our God is Echod," we are taught much more than that Jehovah is one- This one is also 13, and 4. This one is the Tetragrammaton, the four lettered name, Y H W H, or Jehovah, and Jehovah is the highest initiate of the Moon Period. Now it just "happens" that 1 year is made up of 4 times 13 weeks, and that there are about 13 moons in 52 weeks making one year. We need not wonder, therefore, that the highest initiate of the Moon Period, Jehovah, is Echod, or One, and that the numerical value of Echod is 13 and 4.
One of the greatest secrets of the Jews was the true pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton, Y H W H, which is written Jehovah in our Bible. But the pronunciation Jehovah is arbitrary and dates from the beginning of the Reformation; the true pronunciation has been entirely lost on account of the very great punishment connected with the vain utterance of this name. It was commanded "Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain, for the Lord will not hold him guiltless who taketli His name in vain." (Exodus 20:7; Leviticus 24:16). Those who know that life or death may depend on the right or wrong pronunciation of a word and that the success or failure of any great important undertaking may be determined by the mere inflection of the voice, will see the reason for the commandment not to take the name of the Lord in vain.
According to Jewish tradition the Tetragrammaton was pronounced but once a year by the High Priest on the Day of Atonement when he entered the Holy of Holies. It was thought too awful or porteneious for common utterance, hence in reading the Hebrew text it became customary to substitute Adhonay (Lord), or Elohim (God), wherever Y H W H occurred. The Masoretes in the seventh century vocalized the Tetragrammaton with the vowels of Adhonay, thus producing the pseudo-word Jehovah, which passed into English and other languages in the 16th century. Some think that the word should be pronounced Yahweh, but the true pronunciation as well as the origin and the significance cf Y H W H are known only to the initiate.
This word was first used after the birth of Enoch, the son of Seth, who was a son of Adam. (Genesis 4:26). To the patriarchs, Jehovah was known as El Shaddai. In Genesis 6:3 we read: "And God spake unto Moses and said unto him, I am Jehovah; and I appeared unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob as El Shaddai; but by my name Jehovah I was not known to them." (Gen. 6:3). Secret tradition enlightens us as to how the name Shaddai is contained in the names of the three patriarchs. If the last letters of these three words, B, C, M, are transformed by the Atbash, they become Sh, D, I, or Shaddai.
As a symbol of the Tetragrammaton the Svastika is made up of 4 Daleths joined to gether. Daleth, which means a door, is the fourth letter in the Hebrew alphabet, and its numerical value is 4. This gives to the sign the number of 4 times 4, or 16 Daleth is also a symbol of initiation. "I am the door: by me if any man enter in he shall be saved." John 10:9. This letter gives a special meaning to the Hebrew word for one, Echod, the first two letters of which, Ech, mean a brother.
In this connection it would be interesting to study more thoroughly the very first word with which the original Bible begins and in which the whole Old Testament is contained as in a nutshell; but this would lead us too far from the subject. However, the word Bereshit, "in the beginning," has exactly the same numerical value as the word Echod, that is, 13 or 4, and indicates at once the four ways of reading the Sacred Scriptures, which are Pshat, Ramaz, Darash, and Sud—the initials of which lead us into PaRaDiSe. It also reminds us of a big "house" built upon a square base with the sides pointing to a common "head" or vertex, where the writer of Genesis, Moses, the Egyptian prince and magician, had learned many things which he did not write, but communicated to his disciples from mouth to ear.
The Great Pyramid of Egypt is not a dead pile of stones but a living thing for those who have eyes to see. From it went forth the secret teachings of the Jews and the mysteries of the Greek. It is a symbol of the greater world as well as of the lesser world, and its Greek name, Pyramis, has therefore the same numerical value as the word macrocosmos, also the word microcosmos, namely 831, or 4 times 3 equal 12. The twelve signs of the zodiac, the twelve months of the year, divided into 4 seasons of 3 months, and the measures of the whole universe are built into the Pyramid, from which also originated that mysterious breastplate of the Jewish High Priest, made of twelve stones arranged in 4 rows of 3, which later became the foundation of the New Jerusalem. And if we multiply the number of the Pyramid with itself, 12 times 12, and add to the number of the elect, 144,444, the number of humanity, we get the same number which Simon Peter found when he counted the fishes in the unbroken net, "an hundred and fifty and three"
The Greeks wrote the fourth letter in their alphabet in the form of a triangle representing divinity. They had learned much from the Egyptians and also from the Hebrews. The New Testament was written in Greek, and John begins the fourth Gospel with the same word, "In the beginning," as the writer of Genesis who wrote in Hebrew. "In the beginning was the Word." The Greeks also taught more in the mysteries than they did in public, and they, like Pythagoras, expressed their wisdom in numbers, for numbers constitute a universal language. They are understood in all languages in all parts of the world. Studying mathematics also has the advantage that it keeps one "dry;" we do not get excited over it as we do over a political platform.
IN THE BEGINNING was the Word." The Greek word for Word is Logos, and Logos, the Word, as well as Logeion, Reason, have the numerical value of 13 or 4; the former is numerically 238, the latter 373. The name of the Teacher of angels and men, Christos, numbers 1480; again 13 or 4. Moreover, the word Ichthys, or Pisces, which is composed of the initials of "Jesus Christ, the Son of God, the Saviour," numbers 1219, again 13 or 4. The Tetragrammaton, or four-lettered name, was known to the Greeks, but instead of writing it YHWH, with 13 above and 13 below, or with 4 Daleths or doors, in which form it numbers 16, they used their third letter Gamma, and wrote it with 4 Gammas, in which form it numbrs 3x4 or 12, as a symbol of the Pyramid. The reason for this change we find in astrology.
Astrology, which is spiritually based upon the Law of Consequence, is too old a science to be discarded by the "scientist" who now calls it astronomy. There would be no astronomy and no chemistry if it were not for astrology and alchemy. There would be no Cosmos if it were not for Chaos. The astrologers mentioned in the Bible were led by a star to the new-born King of the Jews, and after they had found Him they returned into their own country another way. We are not told how these Wise Men obtained and figured the horoscope of the new king, but enough is said to teach us that the birth of Christ marks an important event in the Astrological Era. It was this great event of the birth of Christ that changed the arms of the Svastika from left to right.
Chronologists have never been able to figure out the exact year of Christ's birth. There have been at least 18 different eras used in measuring time, and the student is sometimes in doubt whether the year of light, or the year of the world, or the Christian year is meant. The trouble with most of these eras is that they begin with some memorable event here upon earth, such as the foundation of a city or a declaration of independence. The astrologer, on the other hand, measures time by the heavenly time-keepers, which constitute the Clock of the Universe and are never out of order. The Astrological Era begins with the year 25,835 B. C. According to the astrological records Christ was born 33 B. C. He died on the Cross in the year 0, when the sun by precession crossed from the first degree of Aries to the last degree of Pisces, to begin a new Sidereal Year; and the Ruler of the New Age rose (again) on the first day, of the first week, of the first month, of the first year A. D. And the astrological year corresponding to 1920 A. D. is the the year 1422 A. D., for according to the Christian Era the sun was in the first degree of Aries at the equinox in 498 A. D.
The life of Christ marked the end of the old Sidereal Year and the beginning of the new, and this the astrologers expressed in the symbol of the sun by changing the arms of the Svastika from left to right. That the Svastika was not merely a letter or a figure composed of letters, but also a symbol of the sun, is shown in the sign itself when written with 4 Daleths where it has the numerical value of 4 x 4 equal 16; for if we make 16 squares in the form of 4 rows of 4 squares we get a figure of the heavens with the sun in the center.
There is one law for the atom, the man, the sun. As the sun travels through the 12 signs of the zodiac, which are divisions of the heavens producing the 4 seasons, spring, summer autumn, and winter, so man travels through the 12 houses, which are divisions of the earth, going through infancy, youth, manhood, and old age.
The 4 principal events in a human life are birth, (which is itself fourfold), education, attainment of social standing, and death, and these are indictated by the 1st, 3rd, 10th and 8th houses as shown in the diagram above. In addition, a child coming from the heaven world and born into this world, carries with it as heredity the experience of a previous journey through the 12 houses, which can be added to the 1st house, giving it the number 13; for the numerical value of 12 plus 1 is 13, as said before.
The Svastika, then, is a symbol of the atom, the man, and also of the sun, and its arms corresponded to the old and the new Sidereal Year of 25,868 ordinary years. Of course, we also find the left-hand Svastika in the New Age and the right-hand in the old, but that need not disturb us. The meaning of this sign will also become more and more glorious as we advance from the Earth Period to the Jupiter, Venus, and Vulcan Periods. We have made three and one-half revolutions of the Earth Period and obtained a mind by means of which our bodies will be consciously perfected during the present Aryan Epoch and the following periods. During the present Aryan Epoch the Svastika represents the 4 vehicles, dense, vital, and desire bodies, plus the mind. In the Jupiter Period the horizontal line will represent our present animals, who will then be human, while the perpendicular line will represent our intellectual soul which we shall have extracted from the vital body. In the Venus Period the horizontal line will represent our plants, who will then be human, while the perpendicular line will represent our emotional soul which we shall have extracted from the desire body. And in the Vulcan Period, when our present minerals will be human, the Svastika will represent the Creative Word, "through whom all things were made."
There are, then, two forms of the Svastika, the left-armed and the right-armed. The former has the numerical value of 16, the latter of 3 x 4 which the initiates often wrote as 34. The former is a symbol of the 16 races, the 16 paths to destruction; the latter is a sign of initiation into the 9 (3x3 or 33) lesser mysteries, and of liberation (1). The candidate must pass through the former before he can reach the latter. The former is the symbol of the involuntary clairvoyant whose sense centers of the desire body are spinning around to the left or counter-clockwise (following negatively the motion of the earth which moves on its axis in that direction). The latter is the sign of the trained clairvoyant whose sense centers of the desire body are spinning around to the right, clockwise, or in the direction of the hands of a clock.
The Svastika is left-armed when seen from the front, and it is right-armed when seen from behind. Where the two forms are combined, the Svastika represents the visible and the invisible side of nature and of man.
When both forms of the sign are represented together by means of their mystical numbers, the Svastika unfolds into a magic square in the following form, which should be compared with the previous diagram.
In this diagram the left Svastika is represented by the visible squares numbered from 1 to 16, while the right sign is represented by the invisible sum of 3x4 or M. These 16 squares are the 16 paths to destruction which the candidate must safely pass, before he can attain initiation into the nine lesser mysteries (33), and find liberation through the Thirteenth (1).
This diagram illustrates the hermetic axiom, "As above, so below; as within, so without." In this diagram add any line of numbers above or below, within or without, or any square of numbers, above, or below, within or without; the sum will be the same. Again, the sum of the paths has numerically the same number as the Liberator, for 1 plus 6 equal 7, and 3 plus 4 equal 7; and so the number of the Liberator 13, corresponding to the sign Aries, the Lamb, and to the 1st house in the inner square occupies the same place and the same space as the number 7 in the outer square. And if we add the inner 13 or 4 to its opposite the outer 13 or four we get the sum of the Tetragammaton, the four lettered name Y H W H, whose numerical value is 26.
Returning now to our own Svastika, the wonderful emblem of the Rose Cross, with which we started, we find the left armed, visible sign represented by a Circle of seven roses, while the right armed, invisible sign is represented by a pure white Roman Cross or Square having three half circles at the end of each of the four arms. From the center of this Cross radiates the five-pointed, golden Star. The problem here presented among other things is to find a square which shall be equal in area to that of a circle with a given radius. To solve this problem we must know the ratio of the circumference of the circle to its diamater, and this we learn from the Pentalpha, (Pentacle, Pentagram), the five-pointed Star. The five points of this Star are made up of the five letters of the Hebrew word Elohim, A L H I M. If we write the first letter Aleph on the right upper point, and the other letters of the word in their order around the circle to the left, because Hebrew is written from right to left, the last letter M will fall upon the right lower point and the letter L will stand at the top. If we now read the same letters around the circle to the right or clockwise, starting with the letter L at the top, we get this arrangement: L A M I H. The numerical value of these letters in their order is 30, 1, 40, 10, 5, Leaving out zero we get 3.1415—and this is the ratio which we sought.
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