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1. Because it would presume to tell men and women how they shall employ their faculties, fixing for them the nature of their work, and how much they shall receive.
2. Because it would forbid a man to work in his own fashion, and to employ his faculties for his own best advantage; and as it would be the owner of all means of production and all wealth, it would be able to compel men to accept the terms offered by the State or to starve.
3. Because, if consistently and logically carried out, it would make a State crime of buying and selling; it would allow no man to work for another, or to hire the labour of another; it would do away with private property, or reduce it to the narrowest limits; and it would fight against the natural instincts of men by systems of spying, inquisition, and sharp repression.
4. Because it would consist of an enormous official class, exceeding in number and authority anything that the world has yet seen, with the workers supporting this most unnecessary multitude of privileged persons.
5. Because it would apply one universal system to all persons, good, bad, and indifferent, and would therefore be obliged to submit the good citizen to the same restrictions as were found necessary for the bad citizen.
6. Because, owing to the immense difficulty of feeding, clothing, and employing many millions of persons, and of undertaking to direct every part of their lives, the huge complicated machinery
required for such a purpose would be constantly breaking down and causing great suffering.
7. Because, when all responsibility was shifted from the individual to the State, home and family life would cease, and the State, for its own protection, would regulate marriages and the birth of children.
8. Because it could only be established by bitter fighting; and, if established, it would be destroyed by some form—such as dynamite—of the same force, which it had taught men that they might rightly employ against each other for securing their objects.
9. Because it is founded on an utterly servile and corrupt idea, which can bring neither happiness nor prosperity. It teaches men to give up liberty and self-guidance; to make themselves slaves of each other—under the name of the State; to consecrate the principle of universal compulsion, down to the smallest details of life, in order that they may at once get a larger share of the wealth and comforts which have been created under the system of freedom and private enterprise—wealth and comforts which are already beginning to pass by natural laws to those classes that hitherto have possessed the least, and which will pass far more quickly as we better understand the value of liberty, and get rid of officialism and meddlesome politicians.
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Degeneration Under Socialism by W.E.H. Lecky
The socialist remedies would only bring evils far greater than any they could possibly prevent. The desire of each man to improve his circumstances, to reap the full reward of superior talent, or energy, or thrift, is the very mainspring of the production of the world. Take these motives away; persuade men that by superior work they will obtain no superior reward; cut off all the hopes that stimulate among ordinary men ambition, enterprise, invention, and self-sacrifice; and the whole level of production will rapidly and inevitably sink. The essential differences of men in aptitudes, capacities, and character are things that can never be changed, and all schemes and policies that ignore them are doomed to ultimate failure.
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Socialism Is Not Progress, But Retrogression by Hippolyte Adolphe Taine
The logical creation of a curtailed type of humanity; the effort to adapt the living man to this type; the interference of the public authority in every branch of public endeavour; restrictions put upon labour, exchanges and property; upon the family and education; upon worship, habits, customs, and sentiments; the sacrifice of the individual to the community; the omnipotence of the State: such is the Jacobin theory. None could be more retrograde; for its object is to bring the modern man back to social forms which, for eighteen centuries, he had already passed through and left behind him.
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