Wednesday, September 30, 2015

WAS AMERICA DISCOVERED BY THE CHINESE? 1892

WAS AMERICA DISCOVERED BY THE CHINESE? 1892


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The literature on the subject of the discovery of the American continent by Chinese Buddhist priests in the middle of the fifth century exceeds in bulk that on the discovery by Columbus or the Norsemen. Ever since the year I76l, when the great French sinologue, De Guines, gave to the world for the first time the ancient account of the Chinese Hoei-Shin, describing a distant land to which the name of Fusang was given, the .world has been flooded with books, tractates, and pamphlets bearing on the same interesting topic, in which Fusang is identified as America.


The weight of mere opinion has favored the theory of a Chinese discovery of the American continent, and even as early as 1752 the eyes of European scholars and geographers were greeted with the map of Buache, showing De Guines' hypothetical route of the Chinese across the Pacific in the year 458 to the coast of America. English, French, German, and American savants have contended among themselves; yet, although much real scholarship has been expended, the weight of evidence to those versed in Chinese history and the Chinese language has never appeared great enough to warrant the conclusions of a Chinese discovery and occupancy of the American continent.

Many of those who have been engaged in this controversy have been only slightly acquainted with Chinese subjects, and their statements are at variance with established facts. Some never studied the Chinese language, and were therefore wholly incompetent for the basing of arguments (as some really did) on linguistic grounds. Others became interested and took part in the controversy from its novelty, as was the case with those who have written in the interest of the old Norse navigators. Again, the basis of argument has frequently been exceedingly narrow, investigations having been carried on from a single point of view; as. for instance, the mythological, without reference to the mores ubstantial points of departure which ought to enter into every archaeological question. The mythology of ancient Mexico may indeed be shown to have been comparable with that of China, yet a Chinese discovery and occupancy of America cannot be proved in this way.

Archaeology is still in its formative state—it has not yet been erected into a science; but the time must come when it will hold as dignified a station in the scientific world as geology. Archaeology is now a mass of theories. Anybody can become an archaeologist and gain audiences, provided he has a theory to promulgate. Two chemists analyzing a similar substance could not think of attaining correct results by violating chemical laws, though the details of their methods might lawfully vary. Thus must it be in the future with archaeology. The day is coming when archaeologists will proceed with their investigations according to scientific methods, whether they concern the question of America's discovery or the beginnings of Egyptian civilization. Had archaeology been a science for the past century the question of the Chinese discovery of America would have been settled long ago, instead of continuing to burden us with theories that render a very simple subject very abstruse and difficult of solution.

The basis of the theory that the Chinese discovered our country, or rather what is now Mexico, is found in the following:

First, The story of a Chinaman named Hoei-Shin, extant in the Chinese language, and translated by several scholars into English, French, and German. This account tells us of a voyage to a land named in Chinese Fusang, in about the year 458; the said Chinaman, a Buddhist priest, having returned to China, according to the account, in 499. Fusang is said to be America. This is what may be called a supposed. literary or historical discovery.

Second, The supposed discovery that the geography of the Chinese Fusang is identical with the geography of Western America.

Third, The supposed discovery that the early accounts of aboriginal Mexico and the Chinese description of Fusang show the same myths and customs.

Fourth, The supposed discovery that Buddhistic traditions are still prevalent among the Mexican natives.

Fifth, The supposed discovery that the Otomi tribe of Mexico has a monosyllabic language, and that Sanscrit roots are found in the different Mexican languages—relics (it is believed) of the infusion of the Sanscrit language into the native tongue by the Buddhistic Chinese priests, who were acquainted with the Sanscrit language—the sacred language of all Buddhists.

Sixth, The supposed discovery of Chinese jade ornaments in Nicaragua.

Seventh, The supposed discovery by Dr. Harvey of the Chinese symbol tac-kai (“the essence of all things") on a monument in Copan.

Let us examine these supposed discoveries according to the above order. First: No sooner was the account of the Chinaman Hoei-Shin given to the world by the French savant De Guines in 1761, than he recognized the country of Fusang as America. Why did he decide upon this so suddenly? What reasons did he assign for this identification? None that are of any weight to the scientific mind of the nineteenth century. The amount of the Buddhist priest seemed to speak of a distant land reached by sea, but in what direction it lay, and by what marks it could be identified, were enigmas that neither De Guines nor those who favored his theory (even to our own day) have been able to solve. On the arbitrary supposition that Fusang was America, it was very easy and natural for the theorizers to trace out on a map the route of the Chinese across the Pacific by way of the Keurile and Aleutian islands. The route naturally followed the theoretical identification. Thus we see that the very beginnings of the theory of a Chinese discovery of America arose without the presence of a single fact, historical, geographical, or archaeological, to lend it support. A theory is a necessary step toward the acquisition of a great truth, but science demands the concurrent support of facts, since a theory is otherwise merely a guess. Such was De Guines’ so-called theory; it was mere supposition or guesswork, since not a single fact was advanced in support of Fusang having been America. It is needless to waste more time in the consideration of De Guines’ theory, since his own work on Researches on the Navigation of the Chinese to the Coast of America does not advance a single fact. The French scholars did what any other novelty-loving persons might have done—guessed at it. If De Guines had even offered one important proof in connection with his identification of Fusang with America, that coming from so learned a man would commend our respectful attention.

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Second, Is the geography of Fusang and Mexico identical? I deny the possibility of elaborating from any Chinese work on travel, by sea or land, a system of “geography." In the Chinese writings many places have been identified, but their geography of the regions traversed is only a mere outline. and no opinions can be formed as to the nature of wide stretches of country. In every Chinese itinerary we may read of “rivers " and “mountains ’ and “valleys, of “islands," “seas," “bays," and “promontories,” but the idea of “geography” is as remote from these writings as is that of geology. The account of Hoei-Shin is not an exception among these works on travel. Its “geography” may as easily be the local description of a small area as of a continent, and may as easily apply to a spot on the Pacific coast of China or Asia as to the whole coast of Mexico or North America. Nature, in her aspects of land and water, mountain and valley, island and peninsula, trees and flowers, does not vary as extensively in the general plan as we are apt to suppose, and the written description is apt to show even more uniformity. A vivid description of the rugged shores of the Great Lakes might readily be taken by the average person for a presentation of the characteristics of the shores of Norway and Sweden, so much alike are they in a general sense; and when the portrayal is by the hand of a Buddhist priest, ignorant of the nature of geographical relations, ignorant of science, and compelled to use the cumbersome Chinese language as a medium, the probability is that his geographical story will be of so universal a nature that it may apply to a large number of widely separated localities.

Is the geography of Fusang that of Mexico? He does not say it is not, but something even stronger may be affirmed. We do not find a single fact to warrant our spending one moment on American soil in attempting to identify the geography of Fusang with that of America (or Mexico)!

Third, The identity of Mexican myths and customs with those of the Fusang story rests upon as frail a foundation as the preceding. What do we know of them? We are possessed of no native written sources of information. Of the mythology and religion of Mexico, only those of Aztec times are known to us, and even these are vague. Prior to the Aztec came the Toltec, which arose about 700, and the supposed discovery of America (Mexico) by the Chinese took place nearly two hundred and fifty years before this, in 458. Only the exhumed idols and temples afford us any aid in gaining an idea of the religion and mythology of Toltec times, and this knowledge, after successive conquests of the land, without a knowledge of the hieroglyphics, is still very scant. If we know so little of the proud Toltec times, how much less do we know of preToltec days. Of the Toltec celestial hierarchy we have some evidence that there was one supreme god, spiritual and invisible, with a council of thirteen chief gods, over two hundred inferior ones, and these may have been the gods of the land before the coming of the Toltecs. But we know so little of those early days in Mexico that no comparison can be made with the mythology and customs of any other nation or country. If even one fact could be advanced in support of the identity of the mythology of pre-Toltec Mexico and that of the Fusang record, it ought to gain our sincere attention; but as we know nothing of this pre-Toltec mythology, how can we discuss it?

Fourth, No greater exertion of the imagination has been made in the subject of America’s discovery by the Chinese than in the supposed discovery of Buddhistic traditions among the Mexican natives. We fail to recognize any facts in this argument. Men in every clime hand down from age to age identical traditions. Men have been the same the world over in their gropings after the Infinite, in their search for truth. Iceland and Babylon, with civilizations separated by an interval of three thousand years, tell the same story of primeval chaos and of the first parents of the race—not in detail, to be sure, but in the main points.


Many traditions of ancient Mexico may be among those held by Chinese Buddhists, yet they are not thereby Buddhistic. They are universal. In all the theorizing on this subject not a single tradition distinctively Buddhistic has yet been recognized in Mexico.

Fifth, It is said that the Otomi tribes in Mexico have a monosyllabic language, and that therefore it is a descendant of an early monosyllabic tongue; or, at least, it is a native tongue made largely monosyllabic by long contact with the monosyllabic language of a superior race “supposed" to be the Chinese. This argument is based upon the old and even still surviving idea that the Chinese language is monosyllabic, which is not the truth. The Chinese is, of all languages, the most polysyllabic. I will admit that quite the opposite has been held by great men. In our cyclopadias and numerous works on language and history, the Chinese language is said to differ from all others in being monosyllabic. Yet it is quite the opposite. In Chinese hardly any object or idea is expressible by a single sign or syllable. The English, Scandinavian, and German languages are far more monosyllabic than Chinese. In English we have God, German Gott, Swedish and Danish Gud, and Icelandic Gudh, for the Supreme Being. Not so in Chinese, since there God is a polysyllabic word, Shang-Ti, the “Upper Ruler." Were the Chinese monosyllabic, the translation of our Bible into that language would certainly have rendered the name “Christ" by a monosyllabic term. On the contrary, it is given in Chinese as Ke-fok. It is true there are monosyllabic proper names in Chinese, but were it intrinsically a monosyllabic tongue, all words would of necessity be monosyllables, including proper names. It would be impossible to render “Christ" Ke-fok if the language were not polysyllabic. In fact, it is hard for a Chinaman to interpret a monosyllable; to him it generally has no meaning whatever. It is the connection of one syllable with another that he understands. Of Course, there are upward of two hundred radical signs, forming the basis of the language, which are monosyllables as in all languages, such as “man," “woman," “horse," “ox," “moon,” “sun,” “dark," “white,” or “clear," which express the earliest attempts of the Chinese to name the various objects and aspects of nature. These do not differ as regards the syllable from corresponding words in English. But beyond these primitive types no idea can be clearly expressed in Chinese with no less than two syllables. Even such a familiar idea as friend must be thus written or spoken. The great Chinese scholar Summers, in his handbook of the Chinese language, distinctly asserts the polysyllabic nature of the Chinese language. Is the Otomi language of Mexico monosyllabic? Perhaps it is; but it does not affect the case at hand, since the Chinese is itself eminently polysyllabic.

Sixth, Regarding the supposed Chinese jade ornaments found in Nicaragua and elsewhere, we will accept this as a fact when the ornaments are shown to be Chinese. It does not require much of an eye to detect any object of art coming from Chinese hands, no matter how aged it is. Of the thousands of “jade ornaments " found and called Chinese, not one has been recognized as such by Chinese scholars.

Seventh, Among the countless emblems of a mythological nature amid the ruins of Copan there are hundreds which might be referred as well to Babylon as to China. To form the basis of a theory, the symbol found by Dr. Harvey must be proved to be Chinese. It is merely supposed to be Chinese in origin, although the nature of it would place its origin at the spot where it was discovered, in Copan. All nations are given to symbols. Every nation has had its “type of the endless and unknown," every land has had its “symbol of the essence of all things." Why is the Copan symbol Chinese? Simply because it bears a faint resemblance to a Chinese character. Among thousands and thousands of symbols found in Mexico, one lone emblem is set down as Chinese! Here, as heretofore, a supposition is made part of the basis for a theory.

We have passed in review all the main arguments for a Chinese discovery of America. Are they at all stable? Are there any facts brought forward to support the theory? Not one. The natural conclusion is that there never was any ground for believing that the Chinese discovered America. The island of Formosa, lying within one hundred miles of the greatest maritime province of China, was not discovered by the Chinese until the year 1430, and moreover was not colonized by them until the year 1661, and this discovery was only by accident. Yet the Chinese theorists of America's discovery would have us believe that it was discovered at least as early as the fifth century. The other great islands of the archipelago have been known to China only a few centuries, and their extensive trade with India arose only after the Mahometan conquests gave the Arabs control of the sea trade with the extreme Orient. Even the Chinese themselves did not become venturesome sailors. They put all of their sea trade into Arabian hands, and only a few Chinese got as far as Ceylon. Yet the advocates of America’s discovery by these people would have us believe that the Chinese junks braved the Pacific in 458 and colonized our coast! It is claimed that the Chinese discoverers of America in 458 were Buddhist priests, bent on converting the world to Buddhism. The Japanese were not converted to Buddhism until the middle of the sixth century, and yet it is claimed that the Buddhists a hundred years before this had left Japan behind and planted their religion in America, five thousand miles across a trackless waste! The idea of America having heard the doctrine of Buddha a century before the Japanese empire is so preposterous as to be alone a final and sufficient proof that America was not discovered by Chinese Buddhist priests.

But is the Fusang country a myth? Could all the writers for the past century have been dealing with a land that never existed? By no means. The Chinaman Hoei-Shin wrote of a definite region, and so have De Guines and others. But had they known more of Asiatic geography— had they lived in this age, when Fusang is known as well as China itself, the theory of America’s discovery by the Chinese would never have been promulgated. To-day we can take passage from ’Frisco in an elegant steamer, and after stopping in Japan go direct to Fusang on the Pacific coast of Corea, in latitude 35° 6' north and longitude 129° 1' east. There is the long-sought Fusang of the fifth century. It was there then, and has been there for untold centuries. Fusang and Ai-Chin (on the west coast of Corea) have been through long centuries the “loop-holes," as one writer has it, of the “hermit nation." To the Chinese and Japanese Fusang has been known for ages. It has been and is to-day a great cosmopolitan Entrepot of commerce. No wonder the Buddhists went there, for its soil was rich, its productions varied and numerous. In the war of 1592—97 Fusang was taken by the Japanese and held until 1868, but was then closed to the latter until 1876, since which time it has steadily gained in commercial importance, and exports what it undoubtedly did when the Buddhist priests began to preach there—~silver, hides, fish, rice, silk, cotton, paper, furs, shells, timber, hemp, jute.

Fusang has been known for centuries. Why it was ever transported to America we cannot tell. In that great work, Corea the Hermit Nation, Fusang is mentioned upward of twelve times on as many different pages. Fusang has always been in Corea, is now, and ever will be, and therefore America was not discovered by Chinese Buddhist priests.
Alfred Kingsley Glover
CRAWFORDSVILLE, INDIANA.

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Over 200 Books on DVDROM of Early Watchtower (JW) Related Books


Buy Now Only $5.35 (I only ship to the United States)

Books Scanned from the Originals into PDF format - For a list of all of my digital books click here


Books are in the public domain. I will take checks or money orders as well. Ask me about volume discounts.

Contents of Disk (created on a Windows computer) :

Zion's Glad Songs (1908). Hymn book published by M.L. McPhail, a travelling representative of the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society.

At-one-ment Between God and Man by Charles Russell 1910

Poems and Hymns of Millenial Dawn by Charles Russell 1890

The Time Is At Hand by Charles Russell 1907

Food for Thinking Christians by Charles Russell 1881

The Life of Pastor Russell, article in The Overland Monthly 1917

The Late Pastor Russell, article in The Overland Monthly 1917

The World War and Bible prophecy by Harry F Howard 1918

Jewish Hopes by Charles Russell 1910

The Kingdom Come by Charles Russell 1891

The Day of Vengeance by Charles Russell 1898

Studies in the Scriptures Volumes 1-7 (searchable PDF)

The Golden Age Magazine 1919

The Golden Age Magazine 1920

The Golden Age Magazine 1921

The Golden Age Magazine 1922

Great Pyramid Passages Vol 2 1913 edition
Great Pyramid Passages and Chambers, Volume 2 (1913 edition). By John and Morton Edgar. The Edgars were associates of Charles Taze Russell and wrote this treatise in defense of Russell's views on the prophetic symbolism of the Great Pyramid of Gizeh in Egypt.

1878 Herald of the Morning (last 6 months) Nelson H. Barbour and Charles Taze Russell (original scans)

1879 Herald of the Morning (first 6 months) Nelson H. Barbour and Charles Taze Russell (original scans)

The Way to Paradise by W.E. Van Amburgh, Secretary-Treasurer of the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society. Contains introduction by J.F. Rutherford and was published in 1924. Issued as a book of instruction for children.

The Three Worlds by Nelson H. Barbour

The Photodrama of Creation by Charles Taze Russell. This is the book that accompanied the slide presentation. Published in 1914.

The Object and Manner of Our Lord's Return by Charles Taze Russell. Published in 1877.

The Day Dawn - Written by J.H. Paton in 1880. This was the first book circulated by the WatchTower, edited by Charles T. Russell, and is mentioned several times in the years 1880 and 1881 in that magazine. Paton and Russell parted company in 1881 and the book was later republished by Paton in 1890, but with several revisions. This is the original 1880 edition.

Millions Now Living Will Never Die by Judge Rutherford 1920

Olin R. Moyle Trial vs the Watchtower Trial Transcript

To Readers of Zion's Watch Tower - a publication in 1902 detailing the problems between Charles Taze Russell and his wife Maria.

The Calendar of Jehovah God - Early Golden Age Articles proposing a new calendar with the names of the days and months substituted to give honor to the Creator Jehovah God.

1917 Watchtower Articles Dealing with the Schism after the death of Charles Russell.

Studies in the Scriptures Series 2
by Charles Taze Russell - 1915

The Harp of God: Proof Conclusive that Millions Now Living Will Never Die
by Joseph Franklin Rutherford - 1921 - 365 pages

Millennial Dawn - Plan of the Ages
by Charles Taze Russell - 1886

Russell-White Debate: A Public Discussion
by Charles Taze Russell, Lloyd Smith White - 1908 - 19o pages

Millions Now Living Will Never Die!
by Joseph Franklin Rutherford - 1920 - 120 pages

What Say the Scriptures about Spiritualism?: Proofs that it is Demonism ...
by Charles Taze Russell, Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society - 1897 - 110 pages
Letters to Elder Charles T. Russell in reply to his book entitled "What say the Scriptures about spiritualism ... ?" / Daniel W. Hull [1910].



The Finished Mystery
by Charles Taze Russell, Clayton J. Woodworth, George H. Fisher- 1918 - 590 pages

The Bible Versus the Evolution Theory
by Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society - 1898 - 40 pages

Studies in the Scriptures - SERIES 1
by Charles Taze Russell - 1886

Tabernacle Shadows of the "better Sacrifices"
by Charles Taze Russell - 1899 - 131 pages

PLUS FREE - the 1954 Douglas Walsh Trial
In November 1954, a trial was held in Scotland, in which the Watchtower Society tried to establish before the British court that certain of its members were ordained ministers. High ranking leaders of the Society testified, including vice-president Fred Franz and legal counsel for the Society, Haydon C. Covington. Covington's testimony before the attorney for the Ministry of Labour and National Service.

The Great Pyramid had fascinated men in the 19th century, especially where it concerned bible prophecy, especially with statements like:

"So, then, if we measure backward down the 'First Ascending Passage' to its junction with the 'Entrance Passage,' we shall have a fixed date to mark upon the downward passage. This measure is 1542 inches, and indicates the year B.C. 1542, as the date at that point. Then measuring down the 'Entrance Passage' from that point, to find the distance to the entrance of the 'Pit,' representing the great trouble and destruction with which this age is to close, when evil will be overthrown from power, we find it to be 3416 inches, symbolizing 3416 years from the above date, B.C. 1542. This calculation shows AD. 1874 as marking the beginning of the period of trouble; for 1542 years B.C. plus 1874 years AD. equals 3416 years. Thus the Pyramid witnesses that the close of 1874 was the chronological beginning of the time of trouble such as was not since there was a nation -- no, nor ever shall be afterward. And thus it will be noted that this 'Witness' fully corroborates the Bible testimony on this subject..."Thy Kingdom Come
Millennial Dawn, vol. III
(1891-1904 editions), page 342

The Pyramid and the Bible; the rectitude of the one in accordance with the other
by William Mackenzie - 1868

The Divine Plan of the Ages and the Great Pyramid by Charles Taze Russell 1913

The Millennial Dawn by Charles Taze Russell - 1898
WHY OF SPECIAL INTEREST TO CHRISTIANS. — THE GREAT PYRAMID A STOREHOUSE op TRUTH —
SCIENTIFIC, HISTORIC AND PROPHETIC. — BIBLE ALLUSIONS TO IT. ..

Studies in the Scriptures by Charles Taze Russell
"The Great Pyramid in Egypt is a Witness to all these events"

The Solution of the Pyramid Problem: Or, Pyramid Discoveries.
by Robert Ballard - 1882 - 100 pages

Great Pyramid Passages Vol 2 1913 edition
Great Pyramid Passages and Chambers, Volume 2 (1913 edition). By John and Morton Edgar. The Edgars were associates of Charles Taze Russell and wrote this treatise in defense of Russell's views on the prophetic symbolism of the Great Pyramid of Gizeh in Egypt.

Life and work at the Great pyramid
Charles Piazzi Smyth - 1867

The Great Pyramid: Observatory, Tomb, and Temple
by Richard Anthony Proctor - 1883 - 320 pages
 
Pyramid facts and fancies by James Bonwick - 1877

The origin and significance of the Great pyramid by Charles Staniland Wake - 1882

Our Inheritance in the Great Pyramid, Ed
by Charles Piazzi Smyth - 1874 - 520 pages



Horus in the Pyramid Texts
by Thomas George Allen - 1916 - 76 pages

A Miracle in Stone: Or, the Great Pyramid of Egypt
by Joseph Augustus Seiss - 1877 - 340 pages

Freemasonry from the great pyramid of ancient times, lectures by Thomas Holland - 1885

The Secret Doctrine: The Synthesis of Science, Religion, and Philosophy
by Helena Petrovna Blavatsky 1897
To know the full septenary significance of the " Primordial Circle," the pyramid
and the Kabalistic Bible must be read in the light of the figure on which ...

New Light from the Great Pyramid: The Astronomico-geographical System by Albert Ross Parsons - 1893 - 410 pages

The Great Pyramid Jeezeh
by Louis Phillipe McCarty - 1907 - 580 pages

Freemasonry in the Holy Land: Or, Handmarks of Hiram's Builders
by Robert Morris - 1872 - 600 pages

Plus you get the following Divine Name Bibles:

Exodus - Revised with notes by WH Bennett 1908

The Book of Genesis by GW Wade 1896

The Songs Hymns And Prayers Of The Old Testament by Charles Foster Kent 1914

Isaiah in Modern Speech by John McFadyen 1918

Jeremiah in Modern speech by John McFadyen 1919

The Psalms in Modern Speech by John McFadyen 1870

The Wisdom Books in Modern Speech by John McFadyen

The book of Job translated from the Hebrew by Ernst Renan 1889

The books of Chronicles by WH Bennett 1894

Joshua by WH Bennett 1899 (some pages hard to read)

The Book of Judges by JF Moore 1899

The Holy Scriptures of the Old Covenant by Wellbeloved Volume 1 1862

The Holy Scriptures of the Old Covenant by Wellbeloved Volume 2 1862

The Holy Scriptures of the Old Covenant by Wellbeloved Volume 3 1862

The Epic of the Inner Life being the Book of Job by J Genung 1891

The Book of Job - the Poetic Portion Versified by Homer Sprague 1913

Mozes bi naltsos alsedihigi odesziz holychigi inda yistainilli ba Hani Mark naltsos ye yiki-iscinigi. Tohatcidi enisoti dine bizadkyehgo ayila (Navajo Book of Moses - retains the name JEHOVAH for God 1912)

Choctaw New Testament 1857 (text sometimes difficult to read)

Joshua, Judges and Ruth in Choctaw by Alfred Wright 1913 (the divine name used is "Chihowah" even sometimes in the New Testament above)

Gospel according to John - Creek by HF Buckner 1860
"In my translation of John I have transfered the Hebraic name Jehovah for the name of the Supreme Being, instead of adopting the Creek word Hesakitvmise."



La Sainte Bible - Crampon (French) Volume 1 1894

La Sainte Bible - Crampon (French) Volume 2 1894

La Sainte Bible - Crampon (French) Volume 3 1894

La Sainte Bible - Crampon (French) Volume 4 1894

La Sainte Bible - Crampon (French) Volume 5 1894

La Sainte Bible - Crampon (French) Volume 6 1894

A Liberal Translation of the New Testament Volume 1 by Edward Harwood 1768

A Liberal Translation of the New Testament Volume 2 by Edward Harwood 1768
"The Supreme Jehovah said to my Lord..."

The Psalms Translated and Explained by JA Alexander 1853 Volume 1

The Psalms Translated and Explained by JA Alexander 1853 Volume 2

The Psalms Translated and Explained by JA Alexander 1853 Volume 3
"For I have kept the ways of Jehovah and have not apostasised from my God." Ps 18:22

The New Metrical Version of the Psalms 1909 - United Presbyterian (Uses Jehovah)

A New Rendering of the Hebrew Psalms into English verse By Abraham Coles 1888 (Uses Jehovah)

A New Literal Version of the Book of Psalms by Stephen Street 1790 Volume 1 (Uses Jehovah)

A New Literal Version of the Book of Psalms by Stephen Street 1790 Volume 2 (Uses Jehovah)

Isaiah - a New Translation by TK Cheyne 1898 (Uses JHVH)

Psalms, a New Translation by TK Cheyne 1895 (Uses Jehovah)

The Book of Joshua by Paul Kaupf and William Furness 1899 (Uses JHVH)

Plus - The Trinity Doctrine EXPOSED!! Contents:

Critical Essays by Ezra Abbot.
such as:
THE AUTHORSHIP OF THE FOURTH GOSPEL,
THE DISTINCTION BETWEEN AITEW AND EPWTAW,
ANCIENT PAPYRUS AND THE MODE OF MAKING PAPER FROM IT,
THE COMPARATIVE ANTIQUITY OF THE SINAITIC AND VATICAN MANUSCRIPTS or THE GREEK BIBLE, THE LATE PROFESSOR TISCHENDORF, THE LATE DR. TREGELLES, GERHARD VON MASTRICHT, BUTTMANN's GREEK TESTAMENT, WESTCOTT AND HORT's EDITION OF THE GREEK TESTAMENT, THE NEW TESTAMENT GREEK, THE GOSPELS IN THE NEW REVISION (three articles),
THE READING "ONLY-BEGOTTEN GOD," IN JOHN i.18, THE READING "AN ONLY-BEGOTTEN GOD," OR "GOD ONLY-BEGOTTEN," JOHN i. 18,
THE TEXT OF JOHN viii. 44,
THE READING " CHURCH OF GOD, ACTS XX. 28, THE CONSTRUCTION OF ROMANS ix. 5, RECENT DISCUSSIONS OF ROMANS ix. 5
TITUS ii. 13
I JOHN v. 7, AND LUTHER'S GERMAN BIBLE,
THE VERSE-DIVISIONS IN THE NEW TESTAMENT
(scanned in .tif and .pdf format)

Concessions of Trinitarians being a Selection of Extracts from the Writings of the Most Eminent Biblical Critics and Commentators, by John Wilson, (1842)
THIS IS A CLASSIC-An exposition of key texts used as proof-texts for the Trinity throughout the Bible, such as
Genesis 1:2
Romans 9:5
Acts 20:28
1 John 5:7,8
John 1:1 etc, etc, etc.
Example
"ESTI means not only _is_, but _denotes, represents, signifies_ as in Matt. xiii.38 1 Cor. x.4, Luke xxii. 20. In these passages the _cup_ was _not_ the new testament, but represented it; and therefore _represents, signified, &c_ are the literal meaning of ESTI and HN, rather than the common substantive sense. And thus in Matt. xxvi. 26, "This is my body." p.308
(scanned in .tif and .pdf format)

Statement of Reasons for Not Believing the Doctrines of Trinitarians concerning the Nature of God and the Person of Christ (1886) by Andrews Norton (1786-1853).
500 pages
Excerpt:
"I John v. 7. The famous text of the three heavenly witnesses. The value that has been formerly attached to this passage, though unquestionably interpolated, may be estimated from the obstinacy with which it has been contended for, from its still retaining its place as genuine in the editions of the Common Version, and even in editions of the original professedly formed on the text of Griesbach, from the lingering glances cast toward it by such writers as Bishop Middleton, and from the pertinacity with which the more ignorant or bigoted class of controversialists continue to quote and even defend it." p.184
(scanned in .tif and .pdf format)


Granville Sharp's "Remarks on the Uses of the Definite Article in the Greek Text of the New Testament Contanaining many New Proofs of the Divinity of Christ from Passages which are Wrongly Translated in the Common Version"along with Rev. Calvin Winstanley's rebuttal, "A Vindication of Certain Passages in the Common English Version of the New Testament addressed to Granville Sharp Esq." 1819
(scanned in .pdf and .tif format)

God the Invisible King by H.G. Wells (Anti-Trinity) in .txt format

AN APPEAL TO PIOUS TRINITARIANS BY HENRY GREW (1857) in .txt format (works well in wordpad and most text editors)

Seven Conversations on the Trinity (between a Jehovah's Witness minister and a Trinitarian Christian (searchable pdf format)
Sample: "A vigorous debate still continues around the hymnic [Phillipians 2:6] passage. However, the suggestion that the hymn has been constructed with a strong allusion to Adam, or even modeled after the template of Adam christology is still persuasive." p. 282, The Theology of Paul the Apostle, by James D.G. Dunn
The ambiguity I had mentioned earlier is simply one that is shared by many translators and exegetes.
The Harper Collins Study Bible NRSV states that some of the key words used here "had puzzled interpeters" and are "problematic."
Sure, we have the way that Trinitarians like to look at this verse, as is stated in Heinz Cassirer's "did not look upon his equality with God as something to be held in his grasp," but there are many others that do not see this in the same way:
"who, existing in the form of God, counted not the being on an equality with God a thing to be grasped, but emptied himself, taking the form of a servant, being made in the likeness of men" ASV
"who, although He existed in the form of God, did not regard equality with God a thing to be grasped" NASB
"who, though he was in the form of God, did not count equality with God a thing to be grasped" Revised Standard Version
"Who, in form of God, subsisting, not, a thing to be seized, accounted the being equal with God." Rotherham
"who, though he was in the form of God, did not consider equality with God a thing to be grasped" TCE
"Christ Jesus, who, when he was in the form of God, did not regard equality with God as a prize" Bible in Living English
"Who, being in the form of God, did not count equality with God something to be grasped" New Jerusalem Bible
"Who, though he was in the form of God, did not regard equality with God something to be grasped" New American Bible
"who, though being in God's Form, yet did not meditate a Usurpation to BE like God" Emphatic Diaglott
"Who, [beginning] [existing] in a form of God did not consider a seizing, to be equal to God" 21st Century Literal
"although he was like God in nature, he never even considered the chance to be equal with God." 21st Century Free
"who, being in the form of God, counted it not a prize to be on an equality with God." Revised Version
"Though he possessed the nature of God, he did not grasp at equality with God." An American Translation/Goodspeed
"who though he existed in the form of God did not regard equality with God as something to be grasped" NET Bible
"who though he had god-like form, did not regard it as a prize to be equal to God." The Original NT-Schonfield
[Footnote: "Referring to the sin which Adam was tempted by Satan to commit, and which Lucifer in his former state had committed (Gen 3:5; Isa 14:12-14). Moses is said to have had a divine form, and as an infant to have received the crown from Pharoah's head (Josephus, Antiq II 232-235). The Christ Above of the Jewish mystics had angelic likeness as a Son of God (Dan 4:25-28; Job 1:6-7)."]
"who - did not think it a matter to earnestly desired." -Clarke
"Did not regard - as an object of  solicitous desire." -Stuart
"Thought not - a thing to be seized." -Sharpe
"Did not eagerly grasp." -Kneeland
"Did not violently strive." -Dickinson
"did not meditate a usurpation." -Turnbull

If, as the New Scofield Bible says, that this verse is the strongest assertions of Christ's deity, then those who hold such a position have a real problem.
These verses are about humility, and how, unlike Adam, Jesus did not try to be equal to God. That is why the preceeding verse it tells us to "have the same attitude that was in Christ." Does that mean that we should try to cling to our equality with God? Of course not. To translate this verse in a way that promotes the deity of Christ robs it of its true force and meaning.



The Biblical Doctrine of the Trinity by Benjamin B. Warfield (in .txt format, works well in Wordpad)

Plus: The Pagan Origins of Christmas - Many Books either scanned from the originals to PDF or imported into PDF format for your reading or printing pleasure.

Myths and Legends of Christmastide BY Bertha F. Herrick 1901

Bible Myths and their Parallels in other Religions by Thomas Doane 1882 (Searchable PDF)
"This shows that the heathen in those days, did as the Christians do now. What have evergreens, and garlands, and Christmas trees, to do with Christianity? Simply nothing. It is the old Yule-feast which was held by all the northern nations, from time immemorial, handed down to, and observed at the present day. In the greenery with which Christians deck their houses and temples of worship, and in the Christmas-trees laden with gifts, we unquestionably see a relic of the symbols by which our heathen forefathers signified their faith in the powers of the returning sun to clothe the earth again with green, and hang new fruit on the trees."

Cross-Examining Santa Clause in the Century Magazine 1922

Christmas & the Nativity of Mithras (Open Court) 1904

Bibliotheca Sacra - Religions and the New Testament 1908

The Christmas book: Christmas in the Olden Time, its Customs and their Origins 1859

The Religion of Mithra - Eclectic Magazine 1888

Primitive Culture: Researches Into the Development of Mythology, Philosophy, Religion, Language by Edward Tylor 1889 Volume 2 "Two other Christian festivals have not merely had solar rites transferred to them, but seem distinctly themselves of solar origin."

Origin of the Sabbath by Parish Ladd in the Free Thought Magazine 1899

The Book of Christmas by Hamilton Wright Mabie 1910

The Christmas Tree in Taylor Trott Magazine 1907

On the Origin of the Celebration of Christmas from the New Monthly Magazine 1821

Early Christmas Carols and Customs in the Bostonian 1896
"Coming at practically the same time as the Roman Saturnalia and the Northern feast of Yule, the respective heathen customs of these two old festivals at once became inculcated into that of Christmas, almost as they stood."

Traditions of Eden; or, Proofs of the Historical Truth of the Pentateuch by Henry Shepherd 1871
"And in pursuance of this idea, the Christmas festival of the Sun-god — identical with Nimrod, Tammuz or Adonis, and also with Bacchus — was celebrated in ancient Babylon for ages before the Christian era. It was identical with the Saturnalia
of Rome, and kept with similar scenes of drunkenness and revelry. The wassailing bowl of Christmas, of the dark ages in Popish countries, had its precise counterpart in the Drunken festival of Babylon."

Religion, Theology and Morals By Harvey W Scott 1917
"But every custom and every doctrine of long standing has departed far from its original. The Christinas festival, in its
main featiires, relates more to paganism, so-called, than to Christianity. The genesis of the Holy Trinity is traceable,
through ecclesiastical and personal disputes, through politics and speculative philosophy, back to Philo and Plato; and the
paganism of old Rome, transformed more or less, is still reflected through the Vatican."

The Galaxy Magazine 1878
Christmas brings us, with its religious ceremonies, festivities, and pleasant customs which, it is to be hoped that advancing rationalism will never cause to be forgotten. Yet it is worth while, at least for descendants of the Puritans, to remember that the 25th of December is probably not the date of Christ's birth; there being reason for believing that he was born in the Spring of the year, a fitting season it would seem for such an event; and that our festivities at Christmas are of pagan origin— the dressing of houses with greens being a Druidical custom, and the giving of gifts being a remnant
of the Roman Saturnalia. The feast of Yule, now confounded with that of Christmas, was observed at the Winter solstice by all the Northern nations long before the introduction of Christianity.

Article on the pagan origins of Christmas in the Christian Review 1840

Yule and Christmas, their Place in the Germanic Year by Alexander Tille 1899 (searchable PDF)

Folk Lore/Superstitious Beliefs in Scotland with an Appendix Showing the Probable Relation of the Modern Festivals of Christmas, May Day, St. John's Day, and Halloween to Ancient Sun and Fire Worship 1879 by James Napier

Sun Lore of All Ages, a Collection of Myths and Legends Concerning the Sun by William Tyler Olcott (searchable PDF) 1914

The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge Vol. 12, 1912
"It has also been conjectured that the day was selected because of its significance in the Roman calendar, where it bore the name of dies invicti solia, "the day of the unconquered sun", since on this day the sun began to regain its power and overcame the night."

Sun Worship in Bihar - Calcutta Review 1904

Pagan & Christian Creeds: Their Origin and Meaning by Edward Carpenter 1920

The Two Babylons by Alexander Hislop, excerpt: "It is in the last degree incredible, then, that the birth of Christ could have taken place at the end of December. There is great unanimity among commentators on this point. Besides Barnes, Doddridge, Lightfoot, Joseph Scaliger, and Jennings, in his "Jewish Antiquities," who are all of opinion that December 25th could not be the right time of our Lord's nativity, the celebrated Joseph Mede pronounces a very decisive opinion to the same effect. After a long and careful disquisition on the subject, among other arguments he adduces the following;--"At the birth of Christ every woman and child was to go to be taxed at the city whereto they belonged, whither some had long journeys; but the middle of winter was not fitting for such a business, especially for women with child, and children to travel in. Therefore, Christ could not be born in the depth of winter. Again, at the time of Christ's birth, the shepherds lay abroad watching with their flocks in the night time; but this was not likely to be in the middle of winter. And if any shall think the winter wind was not so extreme in these parts, let him remember the words of Christ in the gospel, 'Pray that your flight be not in the winter.' If the winter was so bad a time to flee in, it seems no fit time for shepherds to lie in the fields in, and women and children to travel in." Indeed, it is admitted by the most learned and candid writers of all parties * that the day of our Lord's birth cannot be determined, ** and that within the Christian Churchno such festival as Christmas was ever heard of till the third century, and that not till the fourth century was far advanced did it gain much observance."

Christmas In Ritual and Tradition, Christian and Pagan by Clement A. Miles 1912

The Sacred Tree: Or, The Tree in Religion and Myth by J. H. Philpot, Isaline Philpot 1897

THE TRUTH ABOUT JESUS IS HE A MYTH? by M. M. Mangasarian
We can only offer a few additional remarks to what we have already
said elsewhere in these pages on the Pagan origin of Christmas. It
will make us grateful to remember that just as we have to go to the
Pagans for the origins of our civilized institutions--our courts of
justice, our art and literature, and our political and religious
liberties--we must thank them also for our merry festivals, such as
Christmas and Easter.

Christmas and the Saturnalia - Article from Bibliotheca Sacra and Theological Review 1855
"While, therefore, we would not say with Prynne, that all pious
Christians should abominate this festival, we do say that it has
neither the historic dignity, the moral significance, nor the sacred
associations, that every such institution should possess to command
the approval of the Christian world."

Observations on Popular Antiquities, Chiefly Illustrating the Origin of our Vulgar Customs, Ceremonies and Superstitions by John Brand Volume 1, 1813

Observations on Popular Antiquities, Chiefly Illustrating the Origin of our Vulgar Customs, Ceremonies and Superstitions by John Brand Volume 2, 1813

The Golden Bough: A Study in Magic and Religion by James George Frazer

The Star of the Wise Men - being a Commentary on the Second Chapter of St. Matthew by Richard Trench  1850

The Wise Men: Who They Were and how They Came to Jerusalem by Francis William Upham 1901

The Origins of Christianity by Charles Bigg, Thomas Banks Strong 1909 (Easter Controversy)

CHRISTMAS - ITS ORIGIN, CELEBRATION AND SIGNIFICANCE AS RELATED IN PROSE AND VERSE by ROBERT HAVEN SCHAUFFLER 1907
Excerpt: The pagan nations of antiquity always had a tendency to worship the sun, under different names, as the giver of light and life. And their festivals in its honor took place near the winter solstice, the shortest day in the year, when the sun in December begins its upward course, thrilling men with the first distant promise of spring. This holiday was called Saturnalia among the Romans and was marked by great merriment and licence which extended even to the slaves. There were feasting and gifts and the houses were hung with evergreens. A more barbarous form of these rejoicings took place among the rude peoples of the north where great blocks of wood blazed in honor of Odin and Thor, and sacrifices of men and cattle were made to them. Mistletoe was cut then from the sacred oaks with a golden sickle by the Prince of the Druids, between whom and the Fire-Worshippers of Persia there was an affinity both in character and customs."

Sex and Sex Worship by Otto Augustus Wall 1920 EDIT
The egg has in all ages been considered a sacred emblem of
spring; of the rejuvenation of nature after the winter sleep. In
Pagan times ornamented eggs were presented to friends, to celebrate
the re-awakening of life in the spring; and this Pagan
festival, but thinly disguised as being emblematic of the resurrection
of Christ, persists in our Easter festival and its attendant
gifts of Easter eggs.

CHRISTMAS: ITS ORIGIN AND ASSOCIATIONS, TOGETHER WITH ITS HISTORICAL EVENTS AND FESTIVE CELEBRATIONS DURING NINETEEN CENTURIES BY W. F. DAWSON 1902 (searchable PDF)

Esoteric Christianity, Or, The Lesser Mysteries: Or, The Lesser Mysteries by Annie Wood Besant 1913
"The relation of the winter solstice to Jesus is also significant. The birth of  Mithras was celebrated in the winter solstice with great rejoicings, and Horus was also
then born: "His birth is one of the greatest mysteries of the [Egyptian] religion. Pictures representing it appeared on the walls of temples. . . . He was the child of
Deity. At Christmas time, or that answering to our festival, his image was brought out of the sanctuary with peculiar ceremonies, as the image of the infant Bambino is still brought out and exhibited at Rome." On the fixing of the 25th December as the birthday of Jesus, Williamson has the following: "All Christians know that the
25th December is now the recognised festival of the birth of Jesus, but few are aware that this has not always been so. There have been, it is said, one hundred and thirty-six different dates fixed on by different Christian sects. Lightfoot gives it as 15th September, others as in February or August.

The Secret Teachings of All Ages By Manly P. Hall 1928

STUDIES IN THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SEX VOLUME I BY HAVELOCK ELLIS 1927 (searchable PDF)
"Frazer (Golden Bough, 2d ed., 1900, vol. iii, pp. 236-350) fully describes and discusses the dances, bonfires and festivals of spring and summer, of Halloween (October 31), and Christmas. He also explains the sexual character of these festivals."

Pagan Christs: Studies in Comparative Hierology by John Mackinnon Robertson 1903
"The Mithraic Christians actually continued to celebrate Christmas Day as the birthday of the sun, despite the censures of the Pope, and their Sunday had been adopted by the
supplanting faith. When they listened to the Roman litany of the holy name of Jesus, they knew they were listening' to the very epithets of the Sun-God...Others than
Mithraists, of course, would offend, Christmas being an Osirian and Adonisian festival also.

Plus- Is the Christian Cross a Pagan Symbol? Many Books mostly scanned into pdf format

The Non-Christian Cross-An Enquiry into the Origin and History of the Symbol Eventually Adopted as that of our Religion, by John Denham Parsons, 1896 (scanned in .pdf format...also an additional searchable pdf)

The cross, heathen and Christian : a fragmentary notice of its early pagan existence and subsequent Christian adoption (1879) Mourant Brock

The Masculine Cross and Ancient Sex Worship by Sha Rocco (pseudonym of Abisha S. Hudson) 1874 (searchable pdf)

History of the Cross-The Pagan Origin and Idolatrous Adoption of the Worship of the Image by Henry Dana Ward (1871)

The Two Babylons or The Papal Worship Proved to be the Worship of Nimrod and His Wife By the Late Rev. Alexander Hislop 1903

The 2 Babylons Dictionary in searchable .pdf format

A reply to: Jehovah's Witnesses and the Symbol of the Cross.

Sample: Are JW's using partial quotes? And do Greek Lexicons and dictionaries agree more with Mark's point of  view? Let us take a look. "The Tau was the basis for what is now called the "cross" taken from the Latin "crux".
"The shape of the [two-beamed cross] had its origin in ancient Chaldea, and was used as the symbol of the god  Tammuz (being in the shape of the mystic Tau, the initial of his name) in that country and in adjacent lands,  including Egypt. By the middle of the 3rd cent. A.D. the churches had either departed from, or had travestied, certain doctrines of the Christian faith. In order to increase the prestige of the apostate ecclesiastical system  pagans were received into the churches apart from regeneration by faith, and were permitted largely to retain  their pagan signs and symbols. Hence the Tau or T, in its most frequent form, with the cross-piece lowered,  was adopted to stand for the cross of Christ."—An Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words (London,
1962), W. E. Vine, p. 256.
What is this? The Cross used among ancient pagan? Is there more?..... (in searchable .pdf format)

The Swastika - The Earliest Known Symbol and its Migrations by Thomas Wilson 1894 - 167 pages

Kersey Graves and The World's Sixteen Crucified Saviors (.txt and .pdf format)

The Mysteries, Pagan and Christian 1897 by Samuel Cheetham

The Oriental Religions in Roman Paganism By Franz Cumont 1911

Paganism and Christianity (1891) James Anson Farrer

Paganism Surviving in Christianity by Abram Lewis 1892

Plus you get the following books and Bibles about John 1:1c similar to the New World Translation:

Contents:

Newcome's corrected New Testament 1808

Abner Kneeland New Testament 1823 (poor quality scan)

Hermann Heinfetter's New Testament
"In commencing this dispensation, the commans was existing, yet the command was with the God, as the command had relation to a God.

St. Matthew's gospel, with the parallel passages in the other evangelists ... - Page 331
edited by James Stark - 1878
The correct translation is: 'In a beginning was the Word, and the Word was WITH
THE GOD, and the Word WAS A GOD ; he was in a beginning WITH THE GOD. ...
 
The Four Gospels Translated from the Greek, with Preliminary Dissertations
by George Campbell - 1837
Others maintain that QEOS here should be translated "a God was the word.'

The Freewill Baptist Quarterly - 1866
We open to John 1: 1—5, and copy the word for word translation:—"In a beginning
was the word, and the word was with the God, and a God was the word. ...

The Testament of Jesus
by Edward Vaughan Hyde Kenealy - 1901 - 140 pages
16 John answered them, saying, In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was
a God, and the Word was the sacred Spirit of God. ...

The English Works of Raja Rammohun Roy: With an English Translation of ... - Page 831
by Rammohun Roy- 1906 - 978 pages
1, " the word was a God" ? We may, however, easily account for this inconsistency.
The term " God " in, Exodus is applied to Moses, the notion of whose ...

The Gospel According to St John translated from the 11 Oldest Versions by Solomon Malan 1862 (a god was the Word)

Emphatic Diaglott

Plus - Over 100 articles in .html and .pdf format by an Apologist on the New World Translation

Sample articles:
Acts 20:28: DIA TOU hAIMATOS TOU IDIOU "blood of his own Son" or "his own blood?"
Robert Bowman and the "Faithful and Discreet Slave"
CRI and the Money Scandal
Walter Martin on Bible Translations and Capitalization
Spurious Passages of the New Testament
AUTO as an Neuter Pronoun in the Greek. Is the Holy Spirit an "IT?"
Romans 8:1 and the Case of the Missing "Now" in the New World Translation
What's Wrong with the New King James Version
Appreciating the Bible via the Watchtower - An answer to the critics.
Why is the NWT a Superior Version at John 8:58? Why do so many other Bibles read similarly?
Is John 20:28 actually addressed to Jesus. What does the New Testament Greek Tell us?
Outrage, Hank Hanegraaff, and John 5:18
Can John 1:1c be translated as "the Word was LIKE God"
GOOD GOD ALMIGHTY! Ron Rhodes and Mark 10:18
Answering Jay Hess on the word "Worship" and the "Angel of the Lord" and Michael.
Why is the NWT a Superior Version at John 1:1?
Hermann Heinfetter, A Literal Translation of the New Testament,1863, [A]s a god the Command was"
Abner Kneeland-The New Testament in Greek and English, 1822, "The Word was a God"
Robert Young, LL.D. (Concise Commentary on the Holy Bible [Grand Rapids: Baker, n.d.], 54). 1885, "[A]nd a God (i.e. a Divine Being) was the Word"
Belsham N.T. 1809 ?the Word was a god?
Leicester Ambrose, The Final Theology, Volume 1, New York, New York; M.B. Sawyer and Company, 1879, "And the logos was a god"...PLUS MUCH MORE!!
Proof that Jesus IS the Archangel Michael.
John A. Lees, The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, 1930, Vol. 3, page 2048 states:
"The earlier Protestant scholars usually identified Michael with the pre-incarnate Christ, finding support for their view, not only in the juxtaposition of the "child" and the archangel in Rev 12, but also in the attributes ascribed to him in Dnl.
Protestant Reformer JOHN CALVIN said regarding "Michael" in its occurence at Daniel 12:1:
"I embrace the opinion of those who refer this to the person of Christ, because it suits the subject best to represent him as standing forward for the defense of his elect people."
J. Calvin, COMMENTARIES ON THE BOOK OF THE PROPHET DANIEL, trans. T. Myers (Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1979), vol. 2 p. 369.
List of Whole Translations with the Divine Name and other info.
Angels as Gods.
The Comma Johanneum and the Trinity.
Are there Contradictions in the Bible?
What a Difference a Word Makes in Bible Translation.
The New Testament In An Improved Version-Newcome-Gospel of John in .txt format (Gospel of John only).
Bible Theology and the Word "HELL".
An Inclusive Version-The Feminist Bible.
My Vicious Letter from the International Standard Version Bible.
Who Was King James?/King James the Fop.
The King James(Authorized) Version Bible-Is it the Best?
Why Jehovah's Witnesses are not False Prophets.
Don Cupitt on John 1:1 and Divine Agency
Protestant Witchhunt and the Case of Murray J. Harris
Defending the New World Translation-The NWT vs. the NIV and the NASB.
Smoke and Mirrors-Tactics Used by Opposers to Sway Jehovah's Witnesses.
Lies Ron Rhodes Tells in his Book against JW's.
Consider: Rhodes says the following regarding the NWT's rendering of the verse at Acts 20:28, "The New World Translation rendering of this verse GOES AGAINST ALL LEGITIMATE TRANSLATIONS OF SCRIPTURE" (p. 86. _Reasoning from the Scriptures with Jehovah's Witnesses_)WHY IS THIS AN OUT AND OUT LIE...plus more?
My Response to Andy Bjorklund and his attack on the New World Translation.
John 1:1 and the Word/Wisdom of God, and many many Bibles that also DO NOT READ "The Word was God."
The Misunderstood Jehovah and the Ridiculous Notion that his name means "Mischief."
Proskuneo and Worship/Obeisance/Homage of Jesus and others.
Jesus Christ the Firstborn/PRWTOTOKOS of all creatures.
Did the Book of Mormon Plagiarize the Bible?
Conversations on the Trinity.
A Reply to Jehovah's Witnesses and the Symbol of the Cross.
A Reply to "Only Begotten Son" or "Only Son."
The Majority Text/Byzantine Text vs the Modern Critical Text. With Another Look at the King James Version.
A Reply to the Jewish "Why We Reject Jesus."
Conversations on the Textus Receptus (Received Text).
Colossians 2:9 and the "divine quality."
Johannes Greber and John 1:1c.
Is the Holy Spirit a Force or the 3rd Person of the Trinity?
50 Answers to 50 Questions to ask Jehovah's Witnesseses.
Rhodes vs Jehovah-Is it Jehovah, Yahweh, or just plain LORD?
Elohim, Echad and the 3 Angels of Mamre.
Ezra Abbot on Luther's Bible and the Comma Johanneum.
Is Jesus Jehovah-Heb 1:10/Ps 102 etc.
Is Jesus Jehovah Pt. 2/Bible Innerancy and the Mindset of Opposers.
Colwell's Rule of Bible Translations-What is the best New Testament?
According to Colwell's apparatus, the NASB would only get a 59 out of 64 rating of accuracy, while the NIV garners a scant 51 points. But Goodspeeds New Testament and the New World Translation get top marks.
The Biblical view of Only True God/TON MONON ALHQINON QEON.
On the NIV, the Insertion of the word "other", soul, hell, analusai etc.
The ARCHE at Rev 3:14-Beginning or Ruler/Source?
Proof that kolasin be translated *cutting-off* NOT *punishment* at Matthew 25:46?
Ezra Abbot on the Construction of Titus 2:13.
Answers to 65 questions every Jehovah's Witness should be asked using the NWT-A Catholic Perspective.
Is Jesus the Angel of the Abyss (Abaddon/Apollyon)?
John 1:3, 4, Punctuation, Staircase Parallelism and Caris.
Is Organization Necessary for True Believers?
On the Construction of Romans 9:5 by Ezra Abbott.
My Response to Lynn Lundquist's "The Tetragrammaton and the Christian Greek Scriptures.
The Bible and the Deity of Jesus Christ: On Matthew 1:23 and Immanuel; John 20:28; Men as gods; Psalms 45:6; Colossians 2:9; the Divine Name in the LXX, the worship of Jesus, John 1:1, etc.
A Reply to James Stewart's Review of Rolf Furuli's book on Bible Translation and the NWT
Which Bible Best Retains Most of the Original Wording Prior to the Emendations (Corrections) made to the Hebrew Text
More on the Spirit and Quoting.
Bible Versions and the "Once Saved Always Saved" Theology
Jay Hess and the word "Worship" and the "Angel of the Lord"

Buy Now Only $5.35 (I only ship to the United States)

The Cross and the Steeple by Hudson Tuttle 1875 (Phallicism)


For more books on the history of the Cross, go to Is the Cross a Pagan Symbol? 70 PDF Books on DVDROM

The popular idea of Christianity is that it is wholly distinct from the religious systems of the pagan world, which preceded or were its contemporaries. That its rites, dogmas, and observances were instituted by its founders, and without a special divine inspiration it could not have sprung into existence. Yet the researches of modern criticism incontrovertibly prove that so far is this from the truth, that it is the direct reverse. There is not a fast or festival, procession or sacrament, social custom or religious symbol, that did not come bodily from the previous paganism. Of all the great religions, Christianity is most purely phallic, as is distinctly shown by comparing its doctrines and symbols with more ancient faiths. By phallic is meant the wor-
ship of the generative principle, which is probably the most ancient of all religions, and which by its universal acceptance by primitive man has given its precepts and symbols to all others, even those of the most civilized peoples.

Procreation, the most mysterious phenomenon of nature, early attracted attention, and by analogy primitive man sought to solve the problem of creation. As offspring came from the union of male and female, so all things sprang from the union of male and female gods, types of the active and passive in nature. Hence the reverence for these principles or gods, and for the sexual parts (the Phallus, male, and the Yoni, female) as their types. These were carved or drawn true to nature and became symbols of the male and female principles, and their union the expression of creative energy. The devout worshipper bowed before their sculptured representations. The uncultured instincts of primitive man saw nothing impure in the act of generation, but considered it as one of the divine processes of creation, as sowing of the seed, and the command to increase and multiply became a sacred ordinance, and the act itself a sacrament to the Creator.

As Mrs. Child well remarks (Prog. R Ideas, vol. i, p. 15): " Were they impure thus to regard it? Or, are we impure that we do not so regard it ? . . . . Let us not smile at their mode of tracing the Infinite and Incomprehensible Cause through all the mysteries of nature, lest by so doing we cast the shadow of our own grossness on their patriarchal simplicity." The ideas of indecency are the result of an advanced civilization when the rites imposed by the simplicity of the childhood of the race, became perverted by licentiousness.

In the dim and undefined pre-historic age, out of which the distinct forms of Phoenician, Assyrian and Egyptian civilizations emerge, phallic worship appears to have been universal. Criticism confirms Bryant's statement that II or El was at the head of the Babylonian Pantheon, and that the Hebrew Elohim, Phoenician Illus, Cronus and primitive Saturn were names of the same god, represented by a pillar carved in the form of a phallus. The name Baal Shalisha (Kings iv, 42) gives an equivalent idea, translated "my lord of Trinty," or, "the triple male genitals" Set or Seth, equivalent to Saturn, means "the erect," and Kivan said by Amos to have been worshipped by the Hebrews, signifies, "god of the pillar," and Baal Tamar means "god of the phallus." (Symbol
Worship, p. 60)

The supreme god of the Assyrians was Bel, "the Procreator." The union with his wife, the goddess Mylitta was the origin of all created things Virgil expresses the Greek and Roman idea when he makes the conjugal act between Jupiter and Juno the cause of the productions of the earth. As at present in India, the phallus, as an emblem of the Creator, is found in all the temples, and is carried in religious processions, the Romans, when they held the festival in honor of Venus, a procession of women carried the phallus and presented it to the goddess.

As the male principle, under whatever special or local name, was symbolized by an upright pillar, more or less carved to represent the phallus, so the female principle was represented by a conical one as symbolical of the "mother goddess." This was said to express the form of the swelling abdomen. At the temple of AmMon, in Libya, this symbol was borne in a boat or ark. At Delphi, the navel-stone of white marble was kept in a sacred sanctuary (Strabo ix, 420) The goddess Astarte was represented at Carthage in like manner, as well as on Cyprian coins. The famous Caaba, of Mecca, is a rounded stone having like significance.

As Christianity is founded on this ancient faith, it is interesting to learn the ideas of these primitive peoples. It was natural for them to believe that the testes each had special functions, one giving male the other female off-spring, an idea science has lately unsuccessfully endeavored to demonstrate. According to the analysis of Rawlinson, this "conception gave origin to the Trinity." The Assyrian triad of Ashur, Anu, Hea, (the membrane virile with its twin testes) were united with the goddess Bellis forming the perfect creator. Ashur means the "upright," while the left testes was Anu, and the right, Hea,— the three forming the sacred Trinity, the three in olie, the great "I Am." The pictured or sculptured representation of this organ, the phallus, was received as the emblem of life, of the creative energy, ages before the Christian era. The devout follower of Isis suspended the phallus from her necklace, as the Christian suspends the cross to-day. When the pyramids were fresh from the hands of their architects and the temples of the Nile were in their pristine glory, around the heads of the "Queen of Heaven," and the "Virgin Mother"
and the infant Horsu the aureole was painted expressive of their creative functions.

The phallus, by the necessities of rapid delineation, or perhaps of taste, which dictated the symbol instead of the exact representation, became contracted to a simple perpendicular mark, with a horizontal one across its top, and in later times was used as the letter Tau of the Phoenitic alphabet. This sign (T) was received as a symbol of the male Creator at least 3,000 years ago, and in India is still retained.

The female principle, represented at first true to nature, became symbolized by a cypher, which united with sun-worship gave origin to the aureole, and to express also the three-fold receptivity of the male triad, was expressed by a triangle which in later ages became the letter Delta.

Again, the cypher was placed above the cross symbolizing the perfect and complete god-head, the "three in one," the union of the male and the female, whereby all created things were evolved. This is its most common form, although it is met with, the parts drawn true to the organs they symbolize. The sanctuaries of Indian temples still furnish the cross formed of intersecting phalli, to the horror of Christian missionaries worshiping in blissful ignorance the same emblem of creative power.

It was the assembled Bishops at Nicea, in the third century, who determined that the cross should be the emblem of the Christian faith. In their hands it was given new meaning. While it taught that in sin all men die, on the other hand it signified that all through Christ received life.

Thus Christianity stole the cross, the central symbol of its worship, from the pagan world! The devout maiden may blush to hear that the diamond cross she wears on her breast is only a disguised phallus, and indicates almost the same ideas of the more truthful symbol worn by Egyptian ladies four thousand years ago. If the cross was thus boldly usurped, other objects of worship were alike transferred. The "Virgin Mother" is the goddess Isis, as her immaculate infant is the child Horus. The very name Madonna is an exact translation of the Sanskrit Isi. The lotus has become the lily, the charming sistrum has been replaced by the hideous clanging bell, the high cap and hooked staff of the Egyptian God has become the Bishop's miter and crosier, the celibate monks and nuns
(the latter a purely Egyptian word) dedicated to the phallic worship, have been transferred to the "virgin and Son," the erect oval, type of the female principle, or the yoni, became the aureole, or rather the aureole itself was transferred with head of Isis, mother of Horus, now renamed the mother of Christ. (See Gnostics and their Remains, King; p. 71). Even the sacred vessels of the pagan mysteries became those of the holy communion. The emblem of the fish held sacred by Buddhists, Egyptians, Babylonians, and Assyrians, and prescribed as diet on certain days and ceremonies, because such diet was supposed to be favorable to reproduction, was not overlooked. And as the pagan ate fish on Friday, a day consecrated to Venus, for reasons quite apparent to one receiving the phallic religion, Christianity accepted the day and the diet. The legend of the Apostles being fishermen, and of the loaves aDd fishes, has an undoubted phallic significance.

When the village steeple, of a beautiful summer evening, is seen arising above the green shade, indicative of the Christian worship, we pronounce it an inspiring object and would not have it removed from the landscape. Yet our thoughts revert to its origin, and if we ask history why churches have steeples and what they signify, the answer returned is not conducive to our reverence.

The column, the tower, the minaret, the obelisk, all have one significance. The requirements of architecture covers the original meaning. The aspiring steeple is a type of the phallus, and connected with the "House of God" has a purely phallic meaning — "the Creator," the "Great I Am." If the steeple is crowned with a dome, it refers to the Yoni, the navel-stone type of the Mother Goddes, of Ammon, of Delphi, of the shrines of Isis. When the dome, as often happens, is surmounted by the cross, there is completed the symbol of the phallic religion.

The "Communion," under the shadow of the phallic steeple, is a mutilated copy of the pagan rites, wherein communion with the gods meant sexual intercourse with women maintained in the temple for that object, as is proven by the fact that any mutilation unfitted the individual for the " Congregation of the Lord" (See Deut. xxiii, 1), and that thirty-two thousand Midianitish virgins were preserved for this purpose. The Hebrew words for "sanctuary," "consecrated," and "Sodomite," are essentially the same, indicating amatory passions. (See the Masculine Cross. ) The communion wafer should retain its original form of the phallus and yoni, as it still does in some places in France on Easter day. (See Remains of the worship of Priapus).

Christianity is a translation of paganism. It added no new idea, belief, fast, or ceremony.

Was not Jesus crucified ? The tale is doubtful. Christna, Prometheus, Buddha and other Deities were incarnated ages before his time. Singular to note, the cross is never depicted as an instrument of torture, and the story of Christna is identically that of Christ, except in names and dates. Paul hesitated not to "lie for the Lord's sake," and taught that cursed
doctrine to his followers. Who can unravel the mystery? Is it worth unraveling? Except as a page in the history of belief it is worthless.

Christianity, founded on phallic conceptions, is, true to its origin, a religion of feeling, of emotion. Its basis is the passions. To them it makes its strongest appeal and without them it is nothing. Its watch cry "God is love" has a pertinency. Is it strange, then, that in seasons of "Revival," under the phallic cross and steeple, that the emotions overmaster the intellect, and
that the orgies of Babylon are repeated? Is it to be thought strange that the priests to this religion, although held in check as they are by the civilization of our times, are, in proportion
to their number, the most licentious class? or that the strength of the churches is in the female members, held under the magnetic control of " Ministers of the Cross ?"

It is not with a scoffing spirit I have studied this interesting subject, which exhibits more, perhaps, than any other the vital affiliations of religious systems however diverse, and reveals
the foundation of them all. Because Christianity is held to be the only true system, of divine origin, and infallible, it becomes necessary to show its human origin and relations to the so-called pagan systems. Superstition lurks in this stronghold, ready to clutch the throat of civilization; and to dislodge this foe of mankind and throw the light of truth through its dark dens
where dogmas are made plethoric by faith, is a necessity of the time. The church, the steeple, the cross, nourish the superstition on which they are founded.

This superstition is early impressed on the plastic minds of children, preparing them for the reception of the seeds sown by wily priests and laymen from the pulpit and in the Sunday school. It is the duty of Liberalists to free their children from the bondage of creeds and false-beliefs, and how can they better accomplish this than by presenting them historic facts on which popular religion rests ?

Do you fear anarchy? There may be for a time confusion of ideas. The Copernican system of astronomy overthrew that of the entire ancient world, and broke in pieces the "crystalline spheres" of the great Ptolemy, yet astronomy did not die. Without the errors which preceded him, Copernicus would never have arrived at the truth. They prepared the way.

So of religious systems, the ideas and dogmas however false, have been stepping-stones to new and broader views — approximating nearer and nearer to the truth. The Triune God may be proven only a myth arising out of a false and childish physiological notion; Hell may be shown to have no existence; the sufferings of God on the Cross be discarded, and the book in which the relations of God to man are said to be contained be referred to human origin, — and when all is done the world be the better.

The past needed sects and the battle of conflicting creeds ; the present has no use for them. They are dead bodies, once pregnant with vitality, now festering in decay. Something else is
required. It is positive knowledge, scientific accuracy of thought and demonstration. Blind belief finds its last hold with the ignorant.

There will be conflict and chauge assuredly. Sixty thousand ministers in the United States will be relieved of the arduous task of "saving souls" never lost, and allowed to follow more
profitable pursuits. The $200,000,000, the yearly cost of maintaining the churches in this country, can be turned to better use. The hosts who go through a vale of tears in search of a "foun-
tain filled with blood," will be emancipated, and dare to think, and even seek rational enjoyment in this life.

The conflict of the ages has been the conflict between the received religion and the tendency of civilization. The Saviors of the world, one and all, have suffered martyrdom at the bloody
hands of religion.

Is there any evidence that the present received religion of Christianity is absolute truth, and all the world will ever require? On the contrary, does it not exhibit marks of decay? Is it not, even now, a sapless trunk, on whose leafless, moss-grown branches, theological owls echo the mournful monody of salvation to man never lost? Is it not even now directly in the path of advancement and intellectual activity? The great lights of the world are aloof from the churches. Knowledge has been and is the bane of religion. Religion has ostracized Gallileo, Bruno, Darwin, Huxley, Tyndall, Mill, Paine, Jefferson, Shakepeare, Dickens, leaders of a countless host in the front of mental and moral achievement.

Is it said that if the religion of the Past has been largely composed of {Superstition, that of the Present is free from this repulsive element? Ah, what assurance have we that a century hence
will not regard the creeds and formula? of the churches, as we regard the childishness of the Puritans, or the corruption of Eomanism ? Are we not certain that beliefs now cherished as cardinal will then be considered of little worth, or intrinsically harmful?

We are fallible, and have not arrived at the infallible, in the realm of the intellect or of the morals.

If it be known that mankind move onward with the absolute certainty of planetary bodies around their central orbs; that there is no retrogression, and as yesterday's thoughts are replaced by to-day's, as to-day's will yield to tomorrow's, it is our duty not to stand in the way of this tidal flow in the sea of humanity.

~ The Cross and the Steeple by Hudson Tuttle

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Contents of Disk (created on a Windows computer):

Catholic thoughts on the Bible and theology by F Myers 1879

Moral theology of the Church of Rome Volume 1

Moral theology of the Church of Rome Volume 2, by Henry Manning 1855

Moral theology of the Church of Rome Volume 3

Pastoral theology by William Stang 1897

Catholic Belief - A Short and simple exposition of Catholic Doctrine by Joseph Faà Di Bruno 1884

A Plea for the Catholic Doctrine of the Trinity by Robert Landis 1832

Questions and Objections Concerning Catholic Doctrine and practices by JJ Lynch 1877

A Manual of Catholic Theology based on Scheeben's "Dogmatik" Volume 1 1908

A Manual of Catholic Theology based on Scheeben's "Dogmatik" Volume 2 1908

Outlines of Dogmatic Theology by SJ Hunter 1895, Volume 1

Outlines of Dogmatic Theology by SJ Hunter 1895, Volume 2

Outlines of Dogmatic Theology by SJ Hunter 1895, Volume 3

Questions of Moral Theology by Thomas Slater 1915

The Method of Theology by E Mignot 1902

Eschatology - The Catholic doctrine of the Last Things by Joseph Pohle 1918

The Sacraments, Volume 1 by Joseph Pohle 1915

The Sacraments, Volume 2 by Joseph Pohle 1915

The Sacraments, Volume 3 by Joseph Pohle 1915

Soteriology - a Dogmatic Treatise on the Redemption by Joseph Pohle 1919



Grace, Actual and Habitual by Joseph Pohle 1919

Christology - a Dogmatic treatise on the Incarnation by Joseph Pohle 1913

The Divine Trinity by Joseph Pohle 1912

God the Author of Nature and the Supernatural by Joseph Pohle 1919

God - his Knowability, Essence, and Attributes by Joseph Pohle 1911

Mariology - a Dogmatic Treatise on the Blessed Virgin Mary, Mother of God by Joseph Pohle 1914

The Commandments Explained, according to the Teaching and Doctrine of the Catholic Church by Arthur Devine 1906

The Catholic doctrine on the use of the Bible by NP Wiseman 1853

The Pictorial Catholic Library (7 Volumes in one) 1887 *

Short Sermons on Catholic Doctrine by P Hehel, Volume 1, 1902

Short Sermons on Catholic Doctrine by P Hehel, Volume 2, 1902

Short Sermons on Catholic Doctrine by P Hehel, Volume 3, 1902

The Unseen World - an exposition of Catholic theology in its relation to modern spiritism by Cardinal Alexis Henri Marie Lépicier 1906

Ecclesiastical Dictionary by John Thein 1900

Select Essays of John Henry Newman 1903

The Catholic doctrine of the Atonement by Henry Oxenham 1865

Anglican Prejudices against the Catholic Church by Mary Herbert 1866

The Three Religious leaders of Oxford and their movements - John Wycliffe, John Wesley, John Henry Newman by SP Cadman 1916

The Writings of St. Francis of Assisi 1907



Digest of Catholic theology (A Catholic Atlas) by Charles Grafton 1908

The Catholic Doctrine of the Eucharist Demonstrably proved from scripture, from tradition, and from the writings of some of the most eminent Catholic and Protestant authors by Verax, Catholic Layman 1844

A Catholic Dictionary, containing some account of the doctrine, discipline, rites, ceremonies, councils, and religious orders of the Catholic Church by William Addis 1916

A Dictionary of Canon Law by P Trudel 1919

The Poor Man's Catechism by John Mannock 1815

The Real Presence of the body and blood of Our Lord Jesus Christ in the Blessed Eucharist by Cardinal Wiseman

The Mother of Christ - The Blessed Virgin Mary in Catholic tradition, Theology, and Devotion by Oliver Vassall-Phillips 1922

Catholic thoughts on the church of Christ and the Church of England by F Meyers 1832

Cabinet of Catholic Information by James Gibbons 1904

Theology of the sacraments by Pierre Pourrat 1910

A Handbook of Moral Theology by Anton Koch Volume 1, 1918

A Handbook of Moral Theology by Anton Koch Volume 2, 1918

A Handbook of Moral Theology by Anton Koch Volume 3, 1918

Theology as an Empirical Science by Douglas Macintosh 1919

Theology of the Cultus of the Sacred Heart - a moral, dogmatic and historical study by Joseph Petrovits 1917

The Old Catholic Church  - The History, doctrine, worship, and polity of the christians traced from the Apostolic Age to the establishment of the pope, as a temporal sovereign, A.D. 755 by W Dillen 1871

An essay on the development of Christian doctrine by John Henry Newman 1885

Lectures on the doctrine of Justification by John Henry Newman 1914

The Faith of Catholics - on Certain Points of Controversy confirmed by Scripture and attested by the fathers of the first five centuries of the church by Joseph Berington 1830

The Immaculate Conception of the Mother of God by W Ullathorne 1855



The Student's Catholic Doctrine by Charles Hart 1919

When Does the Church Speak Infallibly by Thomas Francis Knox 1870

The Physical System of St. Thomas by GM Cornoldi 1893

The Catholic Encyclopedia - an International Work of Reference on the Constitution, Doctrine, Discipline, and History of the Catholic Church by Charles George Herbermann, Volume 1 1907

The Catholic Encyclopedia - an International Work of Reference on the Constitution, Doctrine, Discipline, and History of the Catholic Church by Charles George Herbermann, Volume 2 1907

The Catholic Encyclopedia - an International Work of Reference on the Constitution, Doctrine, Discipline, and History of the Catholic Church by Charles George Herbermann, Volume 3 1907

The Catholic Encyclopedia - an International Work of Reference on the Constitution, Doctrine, Discipline, and History of the Catholic Church by Charles George Herbermann, Volume 4 1907

The Catholic Encyclopedia - an International Work of Reference on the Constitution, Doctrine, Discipline, and History of the Catholic Church by Charles George Herbermann, Volume 5 1907

The Catholic Encyclopedia - an International Work of Reference on the Constitution, Doctrine, Discipline, and History of the Catholic Church by Charles George Herbermann, Volume 6 1907

The Catholic Encyclopedia - an International Work of Reference on the Constitution, Doctrine, Discipline, and History of the Catholic Church by Charles George Herbermann, Volume 7 1907

The Catholic Encyclopedia - an International Work of Reference on the Constitution, Doctrine, Discipline, and History of the Catholic Church by Charles George Herbermann, Volume 8 1907

The Catholic Encyclopedia - an International Work of Reference on the Constitution, Doctrine, Discipline, and History of the Catholic Church by Charles George Herbermann, Volume 9 1913

The Catholic Encyclopedia - an International Work of Reference on the Constitution, Doctrine, Discipline, and History of the Catholic Church by Charles George Herbermann, Volume 10 1907

The Catholic Encyclopedia - an International Work of Reference on the Constitution, Doctrine, Discipline, and History of the Catholic Church by Charles George Herbermann, Volume 11 1907

The Catholic Encyclopedia - an International Work of Reference on the Constitution, Doctrine, Discipline, and History of the Catholic Church by Charles George Herbermann, Volume 12 1907

The Catholic Encyclopedia - an International Work of Reference on the Constitution, Doctrine, Discipline, and History of the Catholic Church by Charles George Herbermann, Volume 13 1907

The Catholic Encyclopedia - an International Work of Reference on the Constitution, Doctrine, Discipline, and History of the Catholic Church by Charles George Herbermann, Volume 14 1907

The Catholic Encyclopedia - an International Work of Reference on the Constitution, Doctrine, Discipline, and History of the Catholic Church by Charles George Herbermann, Volume 15 1907



The Summa Theologica of St. Thomas Aquinas, Volume 1, 1912

The Summa Theologica of St. Thomas Aquinas, Volume 2, 1912

The Summa Theologica of St. Thomas Aquinas, Volume 3, 1912

The Summa Theologica of St. Thomas Aquinas, Volume 4, 1912

The Summa Theologica of St. Thomas Aquinas, Volume 5, 1912

The Summa Theologica of St. Thomas Aquinas, Volume 6, 1912

The Summa Theologica of St. Thomas Aquinas, Volume 7, 1912

The Summa Theologica of St. Thomas Aquinas, Volume 8, 1912

The Summa Theologica of St. Thomas Aquinas, Volume 9, 1912

The Summa Theologica of St. Thomas Aquinas, Volume 10, 1912

The Summa Theologica of St. Thomas Aquinas, Volume 11, 1912

The Summa Theologica of St. Thomas Aquinas, Volume 12, 1912

The Summa Theologica of St. Thomas Aquinas, Volume 13, 1912

The Summa Theologica of St. Thomas Aquinas, Volume 14, 1912

The Summa Theologica of St. Thomas Aquinas, Volume 15, 1912

The Summa Theologica of St. Thomas Aquinas, Volume 16, 1912

The Summa Theologica of St. Thomas Aquinas, Volume 17, 1912

The Summa Theologica of St. Thomas Aquinas, Volume 18, 1912

The Summa Theologica of St. Thomas Aquinas, Volume 19, 1912

The Summa Theologica of St. Thomas Aquinas, Volume 20, 1912

The Summa Theologica of St. Thomas Aquinas, Volume 21, 1912

The Summa Theologica of St. Thomas Aquinas, Volume 22, 1912

The Life of Thomas Aquinas - a Dissertation of the Scholastic Philosophy of the Middle Ages by Renn Hampden 1848

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